12 Plural Formation


Plural form is used to indicate that there is more than one person, animal, place or thing.

There are some special cases in which the Plural of the nouns is formed differently, depending on the suffix.

Below you can see the various cases of the formation of the Plural, grouped according to their suffix.

Most nouns

Add -s

car  cars
classmate  classmates
table  tables
teacher  teachers
student students

Nouns with suffix: -ch, -sh, -x, -s, -z

Add -es

boss bosses
box boxes 
bush bushes
kiss kisses
witch witches 

Nouns with suffix: -y

Change -y- to -i- and add -es

baby babies
city cities
daisy daisies
lady ladies
story stories

Nouns with Suffix: -fe or -f

Change -f(e) in -v and add -es

knife knives
leaf leaves 
life lives
wife wives
wolf wolves

Most nouns: +s

  • Peter is a student.
    Peter and Eva are students.

Nouns with suffix: -ch, -sh, -x, -s, -z

  • We have 1 box.
    We have 10 boxes.

Nouns with suffix: -y

  • He tells me a story.
    He tells me some stories.

Nouns with Suffix: -fe or -f

  • She is a wife.
    They are wives.
  • We saw a wolf in the zoo.
    We saw many wolves in the zoo.

We usually use the Plural just with Countable nouns (names of the things that can be counted with numbers). We use the singular when there is only one thing; we use the plural when it is two or more than two.

It is generally very easy to transform a noun into the Plural form from the singular form.

In most cases, we only have to add an “-s” to the end of the noun (e.g. students, dogs).

However, there are some irregularities. To recognise these irregularities, you have to learn by heart the cases in which the plural is formed differently and the corresponding ending to every ending of the singular.

For example:
With Suffixes -ch, -sh, -x, -s or -z:One box.” > “Two boxes.” = We add -es to the noun because the singular form ends with -x.
 With Suffix -y: One lady.” > “Two ladies.” = We change -y to -i and add -es because the singular form ends with -y.
With Suffixes -fe or -f:One wife.” > “Two wives.” = We change -f- to -v- and add -es because the singular form ends with -fe (Some cases we just add an -s).

Let’s revise this content within the [Form] section. Take a look at the [Example] section that shows its use within a context.