The present perfect is a tense used to talk about completed actions which have occurred in the past which are connected to the present and still have effects on it.
When expressed in its negative form, the verb denies something about the subject.
The negative form of the present perfect:
Subject + have/has + not + past participle.
- Have/has: In negative form the third person singular changes from “have” to “has“;
- Short forms of the negative form are: “I haven’t – you haven’t – she hasn’t”.
- Regular past participle verbs are formed by adding -d or -ed, to the base form of verbs. Irregular past participle verbs have to be learned by heart.
|SUBJECT||HAVE/HAS + NEGATION||PAST PARTICIPLE*|
- Past situations with results in the present
- I haven’t lost my car keys!
- He hasn’t put on weight.
- We haven’t finished our homework!
- Finished actions referring to life experience
- I haven’t talked to her four times.
- She hasn’t visited this castle.
- They haven’t travelled without their computer.
We use the present perfect to talk about:
- Past situations with results in the present;
- Finished actions referring to life experience.
We use the present perfect to talk about completed actions which have occurred in the past which are connected to the present and still have effects on it. When used in its negative form, something about the subject is denied.
The present perfect in its negative form has this structure:
Subject + have + not + past participle* (“has” for third person singular).
*The past participle indicates past or completed actions. It is formed by adding -d or -ed, to the base form of regular verbs.
—”It hasn’t rained the whole month.” = We use the present perfect because it still has effects on the present, for example the water levels are low.
♦ “It didn’t rain the whole month.” = We use the past simple because we talk about a finished past action without the need to emphasize its effects on the present.
NOTE: The past participle is usually used to form the perfect tenses. Irregular verbs have different fixed forms which need to be studied by heart.
Let’s revise this content within the [Form] section. Take a look at the [Example] section that shows its use within a context.