The Present Perfect is a tense used to talk about completed actions which have occurred in the past which are connected to the present and still have effects on it.
When expressed in its Negative form, the verb denies something about the subject.
The Negative form of the verb “to work” has this structure:
Subject + auxiliary verb “to have”* + not + past participle (“has” for third person singular).
|SUBJECT||AUXILIARY VERB||NEGATION||PAST PARTICIPLE*|
*Short version of the Negative form is: “haven’t/hasn’t“
- Results in the present
- I haven’t lost my car keys!
- He hasn’t put on weight.
- We haven’t done our homework!
- Finished actions referring to life experience
- I haven’t been to Montenegro four times.
- We haven’t eaten snails before.
- They haven’t been to Chicago.
We use the Present Perfect to talk about:
- Past situations with results in the present;
- Life experiences.
We use the Present Perfect to talk about completed actions which have occurred in the past which are connected to the present and still have effects on it. When used in its Negative form, something about the subject is denied.
The Present Perfect in its Negative form has this structure:
Subject + auxiliary verb “to have” + not + past participle* (e.g. I have not worked.) (“has” for third person singular).
*The past participle indicates past or completed actions. It is formed by adding -d or -ed, to the base form of regular verbs.
—”It hasn’t rained the whole month.” = We use the Present Perfect because this finished action happened in the past but still has effects on the present, for example in this case the effect could be that the area became more dry because of the lack of rain.
> “It didn’t rain the whole month.” = We use the Past Simple because we talk about a finished past action without the need to emphasize its effects on the present.
NOTE: Irregular verbs have different fixed forms which need to be studied by heart. The past participle is usually used to form the perfect tenses.
Let’s revise this content within the [Form] section. Take a look at the [Example] section that shows its use within a context.