Unit 9.1

Adverbs Formation

Adverbs

Adverbs are expressions that function as modifiers of other elements in the clause. They can provide a wide range of information.

Adverbs can be formed from adjectives according to their suffix. The various cases of the formation of adverbs are:

Regular

  • The adverbs are formed by just adding -ly to adjectives.
Adjective Adverb
bad badly
beautiful beautifully
complete completely
extreme extremely
slow slowly
  • Adjective with suffix -y : change to -i before adding -ly.
Adjective Adverb
easy easily
happy happily
nasty nastily
  • If an adjective ends with consonant + -le, -e becomes -y.
Adjective Adverb
gentle gently
idle idly
noble nobly
  • Adjective with suffix -ic: add -ally.
Adjective Adverb
drastic drastically
enthusiastic enthusiastically
tragic tragically

Irregular

Adjective Adverb
full fully
public publicly
shy shyly
true truly

Friendly and timely are adjectives and if we want to use them as adverbs, we follow these structures:

  • Friendly ⇒ in a friendly manner;
  • Timely ⇒ in a timely manner.

Regular

Most of the adverbs

  • He was answering slowly.

Adjective with suffix -y

  • She easily moved to another flat.

Adjective ending with consonant + -le, -e

  • She gently opened the pack of flour.
  • You idly ate that tin of tuna.

Adjective with suffix -ic

  • They enthusiastically made a jar of marmalade.

Irregular

  • She shyly asked a question.
  • We offered her some orange juice in a friendly manner.

An adverb is a word that describes or gives more information about a verb, adjective, phrase or another adverb.

Adverbs are expressions that function as modifiers of other elements in the clause. To make adverbs from adjectives we follow a general rule.

For example:
„Beautiful“ ⇒ „I wrapped a box of biscuits beautifully.“ = Add -ly;

There are some exceptions, depending on the ending of the adjectives.

For example:
— With suffix-y: „Easy ⇒ „I can easily drink alcoholic drinks.“ = We change -y to -i and add -ly;
Consonant + -le: „Noble ⇒ „The knight who nobly fought was thirsty.“ = We change -e to -y;
— With suffix -ic: „Drastic ⇒ „Steak prices drastically changed.“ = We add -ally.

Some adverbs are irregular and there is no rule for their formation (fully, publicly, in a timely manner…).

For example:
“Publicly” ⇒ “He publicly continued his speech.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. And take a look to the [Examples] that show its use within a context.

Lizenz

English Grammar A2 Level for German speakers Copyright © 2018 by books4languages. All Rights Reserved.

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