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Unit 1.1

Present Perfect Negative

Verbs

The present perfect is a tense used to express completed actions which have occurred in the past, that are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

When expressed in its negative form, the verb denies something about the subject.

The present perfect, in its negative form, has this structure:
Subject + have/has + not + past participle + …

  • Have/has: the third person singular changes from have to has;
    • Short forms of the negative form are: I haven’t – you haven’t – she hasn’t…
  • Regular past participles are formed by adding -d or -ed, to the base form of verbs. Irregular past participles have to be learned by heart.
SUBJECTHAVE/HAS + NEGATIONPAST PARTICIPLE
I/Youhave notworked
He/She/Ithas notworked
We/You/Theyhave notworked
  1. Past situations with results in the present
    • I haven’t lost my car keys!
    • He hasn’t put on weight.
    • We haven’t finished our homework!
  2. Finished actions referring to life experience up to now
    • I haven’t talked to her four times.
    • She hasn’t visited this castle.
    • They haven’t traveled without their computer.

We use the present perfect, in its negative form, to deny about:

  1. Past situations with results in the present;
  2. Finished actions referring to life experience up to now.

We use the present perfect, in the negative form, to deny completed actions which have occurred in the past, that are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

The structure is:
Subject + have/has + not + past participle + … (has for third person singular)

For example:
— “It hasn’t rained the whole month.” = We use the present perfect because the past action has still effects on the present (for example, the water levels are low).
♦ “It didn’t rain the whole month.” = We use the past simple because the past action is finished and there’s no need to emphasize its effects on the present.

NOTE: The past participle is usually used to form the perfect tenses, and it indicates past or completed actions. It is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs, whereas irregular verbs have different fixed forms which need to be studied by heart.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

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