# 25 Temporal Subordinate Clauses

## Introduction

Temporal clauses are part of the adverbial clauses which are composed of independent and dependent clauses, linked by connectors. The connectors of temporal clauses refer to a specific point in time.

## Form

The temporal clause can be expressed through two kinds of structures that differ in the order of words but not in meaning:

• Connector + clause + , + clause
• Clause + connector + clause

The clauses are made up of subject + verb. The connectors are: before, after, when and while.

## Example

• Before
• Before I go to work, I drink coffee.
I drink a coffee before I go to work.
• Before it starts raining, we should leave.
We should leave before it starts raining.
• After
• After you fainted, the ambulance came.
The ambulance came after you fainted.
• After we got to know her, we realized she was selfish.
We realized she was selfish after we got to know her.
• When
• When they were sleeping, the light was on.
The light was on when they were sleeping.
• While
• While he is doing the exercise, he feels good.
He feels good while he is doing the exercise.

## Use

We use temporal clauses to form more complex sentences and locate an event in a specific moment or period. The temporal clause makes sense thanks to the following connectors:

1. Before (previous event);
2. After (subsequent event);
3. When (in a specific moment);
4. While (at the same time as another event).

## Summary

Temporal clauses are used to form more complex sentences and locate an event in a specific moment or period. They are usually composed of two parts: the independent and the dependent clauses, which are linked by a connector.

These connectors are: before, after, when and while.

The structures are:
Connector + clause + , + clause
Clause + connector + clause

For example:
— “Before you cook dinner, I’ll have a shower.” / “I’ll have a shower before you cook dinner.” = The shower is the first event to take place and the dinner the second.
— “After you cook dinner, I’ll have a shower.” / “I’ll have a shower after you cook dinner.” = The dinner is the first event to take place and the shower the second.
— “When the dinner is ready, I’ll have a shower.” / “I’ll have a shower when the dinner is ready.” = The  shower is the second event that happens in a specific moment.
— “While you cook dinner, I’ll have a shower.” / “I’ll have a shower while you cook dinner.” = The two events happen at the same time.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

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