Unit 1.1

Consonant digraphs


A digraph is a group of two successive letters that represent a single sound (or phoneme).

Therefore, consonant digraphs occur when two consonants are joined together in a single sound.


In addition to the digraphs which were covered in the A1 level, below are some other common consonant digraphs:

th TH /ð/
ck CK /k/
ng NG /ŋ/
ff FF /f/
ss SS /s/
ll LL /l/


  • brother, father, feather
  • attack, rocker, sticker
  • banger, being, mastering
  • fluffy, raffle, truffle
  • dress, princess, stress
  • collar, paintball, really


The two consonants that form a digraph belong to only one syllable.

The digraphs can be used in any position of the word: beginning, middle or end.

The digraphs ll and ss can also be called double letters, since the same letter is repeated twice within only one sound. In this case, these are double l and double s.