Unit 1.2

Present Simple of To Do

Introduction

To do is a main verb and an auxiliary verb that is essential in grammar.

It is an irregular verb and it has its own constructions in the affirmative, negative and interrogative forms.

Form

To do can be used as an auxiliary verb or a main verb that has its own meaning. To do is an irregular verb and in the affirmative, negative and interrogative form in present it has different kinds of structures and forms.

To Do Affirmative

In the affirmative form, the verb to do follows this structure:
Subject + verb to do + …

In the present tense, as main verb and auxiliary verb, it has the following forms:

Subject To Do as main verb To Do as auxiliary verb 
I do do + base verb
You do do + base verb
He does does + base verb
She does does + base verb
It does does + base verb
We do do + base verb
You do do + base verb
They do do + base verb

To Do Negative

In the negative form the verb to do follows this structure:
Subject + to do + not + … 

In the present tense, as main verb and auxiliary verb, it has the following forms:

Subject To Do as main verb To Do as auxiliary verb 
I do not do do not + base verb
You do not do do not + base verb
He does not do does not + base verb
She does not do does not + base verb
It does not do does not + base verb
We do not do do not + base verb
You do not do do not + base verb
They do not do do not + base verb

To Do Interrogative

In the interrogative form the verb to do follows this structure:
To do + subject +  …?

In the present tense, as main verb and auxiliary verb, it has the following forms:

To Do as main verb Subject Question Mark
Do I do?
Do you do?
Does he do?
Does she do?
Does it do?
Do we do?
Do you do?
Do they do?
To Do as auxiliary verb Subject Question Mark
Do I base verb + ?
Do you base verb + ?
Does he base verb + ?
Does she base verb + ?
Does it base verb + ?
Do we base verb + ?
Do you base verb + ?
Do they base verb + ?

NOTE: The short form (don’t/doesn’t) is used in spoken language or in informal writing.

Example

To Do Affirmative:

  • I do my homework.
  • He does his work diligently.

To Do Negative:

  • You do not do any sport. 
  • She does not do her work properly.

To Do Interrogative:

  • Do you do housework at home?
  • Who does this?

Use

We use the present simple of the verb to do as:

  • an auxiliary verb: before the main verb to form its negatives and interrogative forms and the negative imperatives in the present form, as well as before the main verb in the affirmative form to give more emphasis in the present form;
  • a main verb: in the meaning of to perform or to complete an action.

Summary

To do can be used as a main verb or an auxiliary verb.

It is an irregular verb and it has its own constructions:

  • affirmative: we start with the subject followed by the verb to do (without to) and the main verb (when it is an auxiliar verb);
  • negative: we start with the subject followed by the verb to do (without to), not and the main verb (when it is an auxiliar verb);
  • interrogative: we start with to do (without to) followed by the subject and the main verb.

For example:
He does his job well.” → the subject is followed by the verb in its third singular person form does.
I do not do my homework in the evening.” → the subject is followed by the verb and the negative particle not.
Does he do the exercises well?“→ the third singular person form does is followed by the subject and the main verb.

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