Unit 1.1

To be Affirmative

Verbs

To be is a linking verb and an auxiliary verb that is essential in grammar.

When expressed in its affirmative form, the verb confirms something about the subject.

To be is an irregular verb and, in the affirmative form, it has this structure:
Subject + to be + …

SubjectTo BeShort Form*
IamI’m
YouareYou’re
HeisHe’s
SheisShe’s
ItisIt’s
WeareWe’re
YouareYou’re
TheyareThey’re

*The short form is used in spoken language or in informal writing.

We use to be as a linking verb between other classes of words, it gives us more details about the condition of the subject.

To be is used with:

  1. Nouns;
  2. Adjectives;
  3. Prepositional phrases (or complements).

To be is used with:

  1. Nouns
    • am a student.
    • He is a lawyer.
    • We are doctors.
  2.  Adjectives
    • am tall.
    • He is polite.
    • Many people are happy.
  3.  Prepositional phrases (or complements)
    • My book is on the bed.
    • Harry Potter is on the TV.
    • The eggs are in the box.

To be can also be used in short forms:

  • I’m 12 years old.
  • This coats $100.
  • Theyre my best friends.

To be, in its affirmative form, confirms characteristics of the subject, for example: age, behaviour, colour, jobs, nationality, personality, place, price, qualities, size, time…

To be is one of the most commonly used auxiliary verbs. To be is often used with nouns, adjectives and prepositional phrases.

In its affirmative form, it confirms characteristics of the subject and is placed after it.

The forms are: I am, you are, he is, she is, it is, we are, you are and they are.

For example:
— “I am tall.” = We use am for the first person singular.
— “He is tall.” = We use is for the third person singular.
— “They are tall.” = We use are for plurals.

When the subject is a name or noun instead of a pronoun, we use the short form only with the third person singular.

For example:
— “John is tall.” / “Johns tall.”
— “The members are tall.” / “The members‘re tall.

NOTE: We use the short form in spoken language or informal writing.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context sentence.

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