Unit 1.1

To be Negative


To be is an auxiliary verb and it is essential in grammar.

When expressed in its negative form, the verb denies something about the subject.

To be is an irregular verb and, in the negative form, it has this structure:
Subject + to be + not + …

SubjectTo Be + notShort form*
Iam notI’m not
Youare notYou’re not/You aren’t
Heis notHe’s not/He isn’t
Sheis notShe’s not/She isn’t
Itis notIt’s not/It isn’t
Weare notWe’re not/We aren’t
Youare notYou’re not/You aren’t
Theyare notThey’re not/They aren’t

*The short form is used in spoken language or in informal writing.

To be is used with:

  1.  Nouns
    • I am not a student.
    • He is not a lawyer.
    • We are not doctors.
  2.  Adjectives
    • I am not tall.
    • He is not polite.
    • Many people are not happy.
  3.  Prepositional phrases (or complements)
    • My book is not on the bed.
    • Harry Potter is not on the TV.
    • The eggs are not in the box.

To be, in the negative form, can also be used in short forms:

  • You aren’t 12 years old.
  • This coat isn’t $100.
  • Standard double beds aren’t 5 feet wide.

To be has a very basic structure, when it is used as a linking word between other classes of words (subjects, nouns, adjectives, complements…), it gives us more details about the condition of the subject.

To be is used with:

  1. Nouns;
  2. Adjectives;
  3. Prepositional phrases (or complements).

To be, in its negative form, is used to deny something about the characteristics of the subject, for example: age, behaviour, colour, jobs, nationality, personality, place, price, qualities, size, time…

To be is one of the most commonly used auxiliary verbs. To be is often used with nouns, adjectives and prepositional phrases. In its negative form, it denies the characteristics of the subject.

The structure is:
Subject + to be + not + …

Negative form: (I) am not, (you) are not, (he/she/it) is not, (we/you/they) are not.

For example:
— “I am not tall.” = We use am not for the first person singular.
— “He is not tall.” = We use is not for the third person singular.
— “They are not tall.” = We use are not for plurals.

NOTE: We use the short form in spoken language or informal writing.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context sentence.


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