Unit 1.1

To be Negative


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Introduction

To be is a linking verb and an auxiliary verb that is essential in grammar.

When expressed in its negative form, the verb denies something about the subject.

Form

To be is an irregular verb and, in the negative form, it has this structure:
Subject + to be + not + …

Subject To Be + not Short form*
I am not I’m not
You are not You’re not/You aren’t
He is not He’s not/He isn’t
She is not She’s not/She isn’t
It is not It’s not/It isn’t
We are not We’re not/We aren’t
You are not You’re not/You aren’t
They are not They’re not/They aren’t

*The short form is used in spoken language or in informal writing.

We use to be as a linking verb between other classes of words, it gives us more details about the condition of the subject.

To be is used with:

  1. Nouns;
  2. Adjectives;
  3. Prepositional phrases (or complements).

Example

  • am not a student.
  • You are not a lawyer.
  • He is not polite.
  • She is not 22 years old.
  • My book is not on the bed.
  • We are not doctors.
  • You aren’t famous.
  • They‘re not my best friends. 

Use

To be, in its negative form, is used to deny something about the characteristics of the subject, for example: age, behaviour, colour, jobs, nationality, personality, place, price, qualities, size, time…

Summary

To be is one of the most commonly used auxiliary verbs. To be is often used with nouns, adjectives and prepositional phrases.

In its negative form (verb followed by not), it denies the characteristics of the subject and is placed after it.

The forms are: I am not, you are not, he is not, she is not, it is not, we are not, you are not and they are not.

For example:
— “I am not tall.” = We use am not for the first person singular.
— “He is not tall.” = We use is not for the third person singular.
— “They are not tall.” = We use are not for plurals.

NOTE: We use the short form in spoken language or informal writing.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

Exercises

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