The letters ch and j represent post alveolar affricates voiceless and voiced, whereas the letters sh represent a post alveolar fricative consonant, voiceless.
The sounds for ch, j and sh are:
ch: cheese, chess, chore;
j: joy, jumper, jungle;
sh: shark, shave, shelf.
Ch and j represent affricate sounds. To articulate them there are two steps to perform:
- starts as a plosive: the mouth is placed in a way that no air can be released until opening the vocal tract;
- end as a fricative: the air is released by opening a small passage in the mouth, there the effect of friction is created.
When pronouncing ch, the tip of the tongue needs to be touching the palate.
- ch is voiceless, therefore the vocal cords do not vibrate when articulating the consonant.
When pronouncing j, the tongue is resting against the palate, there, an obstruction is formed to produce de sound.
- j is voiced, therefore the vocal cords vibrate when articulating the consonant.
Sh represents a fricative sound. To produce this sound, there has to be a small gap so that the air could be released by an effect of friction. In this case, the front of the tongue is close to the beginning of the palate, forming a gap there, leaving the tongue in the same form a spoon has (a little rounded).
- sh is voiceless, so the vocal cords do not vibrate during the articulation of the consonant.
External link to Sound: CH, J, SH exercises (1159).