The letters ch and j represent post alveolar affricates voiceless and voiced, whereas the letters sh represent a post alveolar fricative consonant, voiceless.
The sounds for ch, j and sh are:
ch: cheese, chess, chore;
j: joy, jumper, jungle;
sh: shark, shave, shelf.
Affricates are consonants produced through two consecutive manners of articulation, it begins with a full occlusion of the vocal tract and ends with the release of the collected air through a constricted opening that creates the effect of friction.
When pronouncing ch the tip of the tongue is advanced forward against the palate, whereas, when pronouncing the sound j the tip of the tongue rests back against the palate, forming an obstruction.
- ch: voiceless, vocal cords do not vibrate during the articulation of the consonant;
- j: voiced, vocal cords vibrate during the articulation of the consonant;
To pronounce sh, the tip of the tongue is raised to the alveoli. The front part of the tongue is close to the beginning of the hard palate, forming a gap. The middle part of the back of the tongue is concave, the whole tongue has the shape of a spoon, the lips move forward a little and are rounded. The flow of air, passing through two slits, forms a sound.
- sh: voiceless, vocal cords do not vibrate during the articulation of the consonant.
Ch and j represent affricate sounds. To articulate them there are two steps to perform:
- starts as a plosive: the mouth is placed in a way that no air can be released until opening the vocal tract;
- end as a fricative: the air is released by opening a small passage in the mouth, there the effect of friction is created.
When pronouncing ch, the tip of the tongue needs to be touching the palate.
- ch is voiceless, therefore the vocal cords do not vibrate when articulating the consonant.
When pronouncing j, the tongue is resting against the palate, there, an obstruction is formed to produce de sound.
- j is voiced, therefore the vocal cords vibrate when atriculating the consonant.
Sh represents a fricative sound. To produce this sound, there has to be a small gap so that the air could be released by an effect of friction. In this case, the front of the tongue is close to the beginning of the palate, forming a gap there, leaving the tongue in the same form a spoon has (a little rounded).
- sh is voiceless, so the vocal cords do not vibrate during the articulation of the consonant.
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