Unit 9.2

Cause and Effect Conjunctions


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Conjunctions are words that function as a link between clauses or elements in sentences.  {See Conjunctions, A1 level}

Cause and effect conjunctions are used to introduce clauses with the purpose to express the concept of cause and effect.


When we want to focus on the cause (we use: because, since, as, due to, owing to).

The position is:
Clause 1 + Because/Since/As + Clause 2
Clause 1 + Due to/Owing to + Gerund/Noun 

When we want to focus on the effect (we use: as a result, so, therefore).

The position is:
Clause 1 + So/Therefore/As a result + Clause 2



  • I used full fat milk because I did not have skimmed milk at home.
  • He did the ironing because his wife asked him to do it.
  • They traveled to India because they wanted to try traditional Indian food.
  • I sneezed due to/owing to the spices in the air.
  • He doesn’t agree with her, due to/owing to her absurd ideas.
  • Our economy is getting better, due to/owing to industry.
  • decided to buy natural yoghurt since/as John wants to be healthy.
  • She was using sunflower oil since/as she ran out of olive oil.
  • Since/As we were not invited to their party, we had our own party at home.


  • I couldn’t walk for a year as a result of the accident.
  • He was eating fast food every day and as a result he got very fat.
  • As a result of eating mouldy cake, they got food poisoning.
  • We had no kiwis so I decided to eat some cherries instead.
  • He didn’t feel very well so he didn’t visit us.
  • We were very hungry so we ordered a pizza.
  • “I think therefore I am.”
  • He wanted to buy a new house, therefore he started saving up his money.
  • They found learning to surf too difficult and they therefore quit.


We use cause and effect conjunctions to link two sentences and to show their cause and effect relationship.

  • Cause conjunctions (because, due to/owing tosince/as) are used to introduce the reason of a sentence;
  • Effect conjunctions (as a result, so, therefore) are used to show the purpose of a sentence.


Some conjunctions can be used to introduce clauses with the purpose to express the concept of cause or effect.

When we want to focus on the cause, the structures are: We always start with the first clause. When the first clause is followed by because, since or as, we continue with the other clause. When it’s followed by due to or owing to, we continue with a gerund or a noun.

When we want to focus on the effect, the structure is: We start with the first clause followed by so, therefore or as a result followed by the other clause.

For example:
“The sausages are burnt because you cooked them for too long.” / ” The sausages are burnt due to the high temperature of the oven .“= The cause of the sausages being burnt is that you cooked them for too long, or in high temperature.
“He baked too many cupcakes, as a result we couldn’t eat all of them.” = The effect of him baking too many cupcakes is that we couldn’t eat all of them.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

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