Unit 11.2

Comparative Subordinate Inferiority Sentences

Introduction

The subordinate clause [oración subordinada] is a compound sentence structurally dependent on another sentence’s nucleus, called the main sentence [oración principal].

There are three types of subordinate clauses: noun, adjective (or relative clauses) and adverbial [sustantivas, adjetivas (o de relativo) y adverbiales].

Comparative adverbial subordinate clauses [oraciones subordinadas adverbiales comparativas] indicate a comparison of equality, inferiority or superiority [igualdad, inferioridad o superioridad] concerning what is expressed in the main sentence, to which they are connected through nexuses. Comparative subordinate clauses of inferiority [oraciones subordinadas comparativas de inferioridad] indicate inferiority concerning what is expressed in the main sentence.

Form

Comparative subordinate clauses of inferiority are used to indicate inferiority to what is expressed in the main sentence and are connected to the main sentence with several nexuses:

  • menos… que  which is an invariable form and is formed by nouns with determiner or subject pronouns:
    … + menos + adjective/adverb/noun + que + …
    verb + menos que … noun/subject pronoun;
  • peor/menor… que  which are synthetic irregular comparatives:
    • peor… que…:
      Can be replaced by más mal or más malo;
    • menor… que…:
      Can be replaced by más pequeño (alternating between the two forms).

Example

  • Sara ahora es menos vaga que cuando era pequeña, estudia cada semana;
  • Han venido menos personas que otras veces a clase de español;
  • Te veo bien, estas menos preocupado que la semana pasada, ¿has acabado ya la universidad?;
  • Nuestro horario de clases es peor que cualquier año;
  • Es más malo haciendo exámenes que tú y mira que es decir;
  • He sacado un menor resultado que mi compañera la clase de matemáticas;
  • No hay un número más pequeño el cero.

Use

Comparative subordinate clauses of inferiority are used when one term is inferior to the other:

  • menos… que:
    • menos + adjective/adverb + que + … is used to compare qualities;
    • menos + noun + que + … is used to compare quantity of objects;
    • menos + verb + que + … is used to compare frenquency or intensity of actions.
  • peor… que… can be replaced by más mal/más malo;
  • menor… que… can be replaced by más pequeño.

Summary

Comparative subordinate clauses of inferiority are used when one term is inferior to another in terms of quality, quantity, frequency, intensity…

In Spanish, the structures of comparative sentences of inferiority are as follows:
… + menos + adjective/adverb + que + …;
… + peor… que…;
… + menor… que…

For example:

— «Ella está menos enfadada que yo» = indicates that she has a lower anger than me;

— «Ella se encuentra peor que yo» = indicates that she is in a lower state of mind than I am;

— «Ella tiene un menor enfado que el mío» = indicates that her anger is lower than mine;

Check the contents of the {Form} section. Then move on to the {Example} section, which shows you the usage in context.

Exercises


The exercises are not created yet. If you would like to get involve with their creation, be a contributor.



Ambassadors

Open TextBooks are collaborative projects, with people from all over the world bringing their skills and interests to join in the compilation and dissemination of knowledge to everyone and everywhere.

Become an Ambassador and write your textbooks.

Online Teaching

Become a Books4Languages Online tutor & teacher.

More information here about how to be a tutor.

Translations

This book is available in:
Español (original) | français | Italiano | Polskie

Contributors

The Books4Languages is a collaborative projects, with people from all over the world bringing their skills and interests to join in the compilation and dissemination of knowledge to everyone, everywhere.