Unit 10.1

Participle

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Introduction

The participle [participio] is one of the non-personal forms of the verb, which has the function of an adjective.

Form

The participle is used as an adjective to talk about qualities, properties, and relationships. In this case, it varies in gender and number and agrees with the noun it accompanies.

The regular participles are formed by adding the suffix -ado/-ido depending on the conjugation:

Conjugación Sufijo
1.ª (-AR) -ado (trabajado)
2.ª (-ER) -ido (bebido)
3.ª (-IR) -ido (vivido)

Example

  • Estoy agotado de ir todo el día en autobús;
  • Me quedé molida tras ir en metro por toda la ciudad;
  • Encontraron las ventanillas del coche subidas en el aparcamiento;
  • Estoy encantado con el conductor;
  • La maleta se ha quedado metida en taxi;
  • Han viajado por carreteras derruidas.

Use

The participle is used:

  • in compound verb tenses (e.g., past perfect) to talk about actions, processes, states, and changes of conditions;
  • as an adjective in constructions with the verbs ser o estar (attribute of copulative verbs) to talk about qualities, properties, and relations;
  • In verbal periphrases.

Summary

In Spanish, the participle is an impersonal form of the verb and can play the role of an adjective, for example, in the structure estar + participle.

The participle is formed by adding the suffix -ado/-ido to the verb and agrees with gender and number.

For example:
— «He dormido muy bien esta noche». = With the past perfect tense;
— «Natalia está muy cansada». = After estar.

Check the contents of the {Form} section. Then move on to the {Example} section, which shows you the usage in context.

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Español (original) | français | Italiano | Polskie

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