Unit 4.1

Types of Adjectives

Advertising

Introduction

The adjective [adjetivo] modifies the noun, indicating its characteristics or qualities.

There are two kinds of adjectives: qualifying adjectives and relational adjectives.

Form

Adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns they accompany.

Two kinds of adjectives attribute different types of characteristics to the noun: qualifying and relational.

Qualifying adjectives

Qualifying adjectives are adjectives that indicate qualities or properties of the noun. These are their characteristics:

  • they fulfill the functions of noun complement (el libro interesante) and attribute (el libro es interesante).
  • they are placed behind or in front of the noun. We put them in front of the noun when we want to emphasize the quality they point out;
  • they can be graduatedun libro muy interesante;
  • Qualifying adjectives cannot combine with possessive pronouns: *mi interesante. 

Relational adjectives

Relational adjectives specify the field or category to which the noun belongs and are characterized by the formula «belonging or relating to » (e.g., crisis económica). These are their characteristics:

  • they provide the answer to the question «¿De qué tipo?»;
  • they are always placed after the noun;
  • they are not gradable*crisis muy económica;
  • one of the subgroups of relational adjectives is the gentilic adjectives, which indicate a person’s relationship to a geographical place (especially his or her nationality): españolinglésitalianojaponés, madrileño, barcelonés

Example

Qualifying adjectives:

  • Es una chica sociable;
  • El perro es muy simpático;
  • El alegre danzarín brincaba sin parar.

Relational adjectives:

  • No hay papel higiénico en la tienda;
  • Creo que ha acabado la crisis sanitaria;
  • El clima español es caluroso.

Use

The adjective is used to: add information to a noun, describe the attributes of a noun and modify the noun, indicating its characteristics or qualities In the same way:

  • qualifying adjectives are used to attribute a quality or property to the noun;
  • relational adjectives are used to relate the noun to a domain or category.

Summary

The adjective modifies the noun, indicating its characteristics or qualities. In Spanish, there are two kinds of adjectives: qualifying adjectives and relational adjectives.

For example:

—«Mi DNI es español». = The adjective that expresses a quality of the DNI;

—«He encontrado un DNI español».=The adjective represents a relationship between the DNI and other DNI-s.

Check the contents of the {Form} section. Then move on to the {Example} section, which shows you the usage in context.

Exercises


The exercises are not created yet. If you would like to get involve with their creation, be a contributor.



Ambassadors

Open TextBooks are collaborative projects, with people from all over the world bringing their skills and interests to join in the compilation and dissemination of knowledge to everyone and everywhere.

Become an Ambassador and write your textbooks.

Online Teaching

Become a Books4Languages Online tutor & teacher.

More information here about how to be a tutor.

Translations

This book is available in:
Español (original) | français | Italiano | Polskie

Ambassadors

The Books4Languages is a collaborative projects, with people from all over the world bringing their skills and interests to join in the compilation and dissemination of knowledge to everyone, everywhere.

License