Unit 8.2

Verb Complement

Advertising

Introduction

The verb phrase (VP) [sintagma verbal (SV)] is a syntactic structure whose nucleus is a verb (predicativecopulative or attributive, auxiliary) on which other complements of the verb in the sentence depend.

The verb complement [complemento del verbo] is one of the complements of the verb phrase. It is a word or group of words that accompany the verb in the sentence.

Form

The verb complement can have different functions in the sentence. These are attributed, direct complement (DC), and indirect complement (IC):

Attribute

The complement of the verb with attribute function has the following characteristics:

  • it is linked to the subject through the copulative verbs ser and estarparecer;
  • when a noun or adjective forms it, it agrees with the subject in gender and number;
  • the neuter pronoun lo can replace it.

Direct complement (DC)

The complement of the verb with the direct object function has the following characteristics:

  • represents the part of speech on which the action of the verb falls;
  • it can refer to a person, a thing, or a subordinate clause;
  • If the DC is one or more indeterminate persons and the verb is tener, the DC is without a preposition.

Indirect complement (IC)

The complement of the verb with the indirect object function has the following characteristics:

  • the part of speech that indirectly receives the action of the verb;
  • the 1st person singular IC pronoun (me) is used with the verb gustar.

 

Example

Attribute:

  • Mi habitación es muy pequeña;
  • Esta casa es una ruina;
  • El ascensor está estropeado.

Direct complement:

  • El piso no tiene calefacción;
  • Vamos a ver la televisión;
  • Aún no he hecho la cama.

Indirect complement:

  • Enséñale el apartamento a María;
  • Córtale el jardín a la vecina;
  • Me gusta este estudio. (A mí.)

Use

The different types of verb complement have the following uses:

  • attribute: provides information (quality, state, characteristic, or property) about the subject;
  • direct complement (DC): points to a person, thing, or subordinate clause that receives the action of the verb;
  • indirect complement (IC): points to a person, animal, or thing that indirectly receives the verb’s action.

Summary

In Spanish, the complement of the verb is the word or group of words that accompany the verb in the sentence and can be:

  • Attribute expresses quality or a state of the subject through the copulative verbs ser, estar and parecer.
  • Direct object indicates the person, animal or thing on which the verb falls; it usually follows the verb, does not have a preposition and does not have to agree with the verb in number and person.
  • Indirect object refers to the person, animal or thing on which the action of the verb indirectly falls, i.e. the addressee of the verb’s action and is introduced by the prepositions a or para.

For example:
— «Ana está cansada». = Attribute (cansada is a participle);
— «Jorge está llamando a Ana». = DC with the preposition a;
—«Jorge le regala un anillo a Ana».  = IC with the preposition a.

Check the contents of the {Form} section. Then move on to the {Example} section, which shows you the usage in context.

Exercises


The exercises are not created yet. If you would like to get involve with their creation, be a contributor.



Ambassadors

Open TextBooks are collaborative projects, with people from all over the world bringing their skills and interests to join in the compilation and dissemination of knowledge to everyone and everywhere.

Become an Ambassador and write your textbooks.

Online Teaching

Become a Books4Languages Online tutor & teacher.

More information here about how to be a tutor.

Translations

This book is available in:
Español (original) | français | Italiano | Polskie

Ambassadors

The Books4Languages is a collaborative projects, with people from all over the world bringing their skills and interests to join in the compilation and dissemination of knowledge to everyone, everywhere.

License