Unit 6.2

Types of simple sentences: Speaker attitude

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Introduction

The simple sentence [oración simple] is a type of sentence with only a predicate made up of a verb and other words.

Simple sentences are divided according to the attitude of the speaker [actitud del hablante] and the nature of the predicate [naturaleza del predicado].

There are two types of simple sentences depending on the speaker’s attitude: enunciative [enunciativas] and direct interrogative [interrogativas directas].

Form

simple sentence consists of a subject (its nucleus is a noun) and a predicate (its nucleus is a verb).

There are several types of simple sentences, but they always have the same structure:

Subjet + predicate + object + …

Simple sentences are divided according to two criteria: the speaker’s attitude and the nature of the predicate.

Depending on the speaker’s attitude, we have different kinds of sentences, including enunciative and interrogative sentences.

Enunciative

Enunciative sentences can be:

  • affirmatives;
  • negative: they contain the adverb no before the verb (verb in negative form).

Interrogative

Interrogative sentences can be direct or indirect.

Direct interrogative sentences are in the form of a question and can be distinguished as follows:

  • partial: they contain a pronoun or an interrogative adverb. If they have a preposition, this always precedes the pronoun or interrogative adverb. In the case of the interrogative pronoun quién, it acts as the subject.
  • total: they do not contain an interrogative pronoun or adverb and have the same structure as enunciative sentences:
    ¿Subjet + predicate + complements?

Indirect interrogative sentences are not in the form of a question.

Example

Enunciative:

  • affirmatives:
    • Iré al cine esta tarde;
    • Adoro los cuadros del museo;
    • Leo libros.
  • negatives:
    • No iré al cine esta tarde;
    • No adoro los cuadros del museo;
    • No leo libros.

Interrogatives:

  • partials:
    • ¿Cuál es tu exposición favorita?
    • ¿Cuándo fuiste de vacaciones?
    • ¿Quién es esa chica de la película?
  • total:
    • ¿Irás al cine esta tarde? / ¿No irás al cine esta tarde?
    • ¿Adoras los cuadros del museo? /  ¿No adoras los cuadros del museo?
    • ¿Lees libros? / ¿No lees libros?

Use

The simple sentence is used to talk about a single fact, as it has only one predicate.

Depending on the speaker attitude, there are different types of simple sentences that also serve other purposes:

  • enunciative are used to state a fact:
    • affirmative: to communicate some content;
    • negative: to deny some content.
  • direct interrogatives are used to ask about a point:
    • partial: to ask for additional information;
    • total: to ask for an affirmation (the answer is ) o negation (the answer is No).

Summary

In Spanish, the simple sentence is so-called because it is made up of a predicate, which is why it has his structure:

Subject + predicate + object + …

There are several types of this type of sentence: enunciative, direct interrogative, impersonal, copulative, transitive and intransitive.

For example:
— «¿Vas a casa?» = The verb of the sentence is voy and the type of sentence is a direct interrogative one;
— «Ella tiene un perro». = The verb of the sentence is tiene and the type of sentence is an affirmative enunciative one.

Check the contents of the {Form} section. Then move on to the {Example} section, which shows you the usage in context.

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