Unit 8.1



Education and culture: Education centres

Conditions of life and social structure

Types of Education Centres

  • Nursery schools take care of children aged between 3 and 5 and offer early education.
  • Preparatory schools are fee-charging, independent primary schools that serve children up to the age of 13.
  • State Schools provide free education for pupils. They are funded from taxes and most are organised by Local Authorities.
  • In England and Wales, a public school is an older, student selective and expensive independent secondary school which takes care of children aged between 13 and 18.
  • Private schools, also known as independent schools, non-governmental, or non-state schools are not administered by the local, state or national governments. They can select their students and are funded whole or in part by charging their students for tuition.
  • Grammar schools are free academy-oriented secondary schools. They are selective schools to which you must pass the exam at the age of 10 to get accepted. There is an official ban on opening new grammar schools since 1998 since they were accused of creating and deepening the differences between people.
  • Academy schools are state-funded schools in England. They do not have to follow the National Curriculum. They are self-governing and may get additional support.
  • Faith schools have freedom in choosing what to learn in case of religion, the rest of the subjects must follow the National Curriculum. If it is and faith academy then it doesn’t have to follow Curriculum.
  • Studio schools are small schools that also teach practical skills in workplaces.
  • Colleges are places where students go for two years to prepare for exams to get into university or to get further education courses leading to specific degrees or qualifications.
  • Universities have the legal right of issuing higher education degrees. They offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.

Division of Teaching in Levels of Education

  • The education system is divided into stages based upon age:
    • Key Stage 1 for kids 5 to 7 years old. It covers primary education;
    • Key Stage 2 for kids 7 to 11 years old. It covers primary education;
    • Key Stage 3 for kids 11 to 14 years old. It covers secondary education;
    • Key Stage 4 for kids 14 to 16 years old. It covers secondary education;
  • From the age of 16, there is a two-year period of further education known as “sixth form” or “college” which leads to A-level qualifications (similar to a high school diploma in some other countries), or many alternative qualifications. After that, students can enter Universities for higher education.
  • Legally, parents may choose to educate their children at home.

The obligation of and Having Basic Education

  • Full-time education is obligatory for all children aged 4/5 to 16, only in England, compulsory education is extended till 18, either at school or otherwise.
  • Children between the ages of 3 and 5 are qualified for 600 hours per year of optional, state-funded, pre-school education. This can be provided in “playgroups”, nurseries, community childcare centres or nursery classes in schools.

Facilities and Services of Education Centres

  • In the UK, most of the public schools and private schools provide playgrounds or courts to play in and libraries for children to benefit from.

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