Unit 12.1



Social and cultural events and people from social and cultural life

Important events and personalities of past and present

Great Social Events and Events of Social Life in the United Kingdom

  • The Great Exhibition was the first World Fair which became popular in the 19th century. World’s Fairs show cultural and technological achievements of different countries. It was organised by Henry Cole and Prince Albert. It took place from 1 May to 15 October 1851, in Hyde Park, London. It was held in specially built Crystal Palace. It was made from iron and plate-glass.
  • Louise Joy Brown is an English woman. She is known for being the first human to have been born after conception by in vitro fertilisation, or IVF. Louise Brown was born at Oldham General Hospital, Oldham, by planned Caesarean section. She weighed 5 pounds, 12 ounces (2.608 kg) at birth.
  • Sheep Dolly has first cloned mammal. Dolly was cloned by Keith Campbell, Ian Wilmut and colleagues at Edinburgh University. She was born in 1996 and died in 2003. She was the only lamb that survived to adulthood from 277 attempts.

Great Cultural Events in the United Kingdom

  • 2012 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony: The opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympic Games took place on the evening of Friday, 27 July in the Olympic Stadium, London. It included welcoming speeches, hoisting of the flags and the parade of athletes with an artistic ceremony to showcase the host nation’s culture. The 2012 Games were formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II.
  • 2012 Summer Olympics Closing Ceremony: The closing ceremony of the London 2012 Summer Olympics, also known as A Symphony of British Music was held on 12 August in the Olympic Stadium. The closing ceremony was created by Kim Gavin, Es Devlin, Stephen Daldry, David Arnold and Mark Fisher. The worldwide broadcast began at 21:00 BST and finished at 00:11, lasting three hours and eleven minutes.
  • Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band is the eighth studio album by the English rock band the Beatles. It was released on 1 June 1967. It gained immediate success as soon as it was released.

Internationally Renowned Cultural, Scientific and Sporting Personalities

  • Stephen Hawking is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. He works on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation.
  • Charles Darwin was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He suggested that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors.
  • Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician. He is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

Popular people from contemporary social life

  • Diana, Princess of Wales – was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales. Her philanthropic and charity activities and a passion for fashion made her one of the most famous and loved members of the British royal family. Her tragic death in car crash met with emotional reception, both from the public and tabloids.
  • Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge – she is a commoner that became the wife of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who is expected to become king of United Kingdom. Both of them are becoming popular by promoting a united royal family image.

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