Unit 9.1

Adverbs Formation

Adverbs

Adverbs are expressions that function as modifiers of other elements in the clause. They can provide a wide range of information.

Adverbs can be formed from adjectives according to their suffix. The various cases of the formation of adverbs are:

Regular

The adverbs are formed by just adding -ly to adjectives.

AdjectiveAdverb
badbadly
beautifulbeautifully
completecompletely
extremeextremely
slowslowly

Exceptions

Exceptions to the regular formation:

  • Adjective with suffix -y : change to -i before adding -ly.
AdjectiveAdverb
easyeasily
happyhappily
nastynastily
  • If an adjective ends with consonant + -le, -e becomes -y.
AdjectiveAdverb
gentlegently
idleidly
noblenobly
  • Adjective with suffix -ic: add -ally.
AdjectiveAdverb
drasticdrastically
enthusiasticenthusiastically
tragictragically

Irregular

There are also some irregular adverbs:

AdjectiveAdverb
fullfully
publicpublicly
shyshyly
truetruly

Friendly and timely are adjectives and if we want to use them as adverbs, we follow these structures:

  • Friendly ⇒ in a friendly manner;
  • Timely ⇒ in a timely manner.

Regular

Most of the adverbs

  • He was answering slowly.

Adjective with suffix -y

  • She easily moved to another flat.

Adjective ending with consonant + -le, -e

  • She gently opened the pack of flour.
  • You idly ate that tin of tuna.

Adjective with suffix -ic

  • They enthusiastically made a jar of marmalade.

Irregular

  • She shyly asked a question.
  • We offered her some orange juice in a friendly manner.

We use an adverb to describe or give more information about a verb, adjective, phrase or another adverb.

Adverbs are expressions that function as modifiers of other elements in the clause. They give more information. In most cases, we are able to make an adverb from an adjective by simply adding -ly.

For example:
“Beautiful” ⇒ “Beautifully“. = We add -ly at the end of the adjective.

There are some exceptions, depending on the ending of the adjectives.

For example:
— With suffix-y, we change -y to -i and add -ly: “Easy ⇒ “Easily“.
— With Consonant + -le, we change -e to -y: “Noble ⇒ “Nobly“.
— With suffix -ic, we add -ally: “Drastic ⇒ “Drastically“.

Some adverbs are irregular and there is no rule for their formation (fully, publiclyin a timely manner…).

For example:
— “Publicly” ⇒ “Publicly”.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. And take a look to the [Examples] that show its use within a context.

License

English Grammar A2 Level Copyright © 2018 by books4languages. All Rights Reserved.