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Unit 1.1

Present Perfect Interrogative

Verbs

The present perfect is a tense used to express completed actions which have occurred in the past, are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

When expressed in its interrogative form, the verb is used to ask questions.

The present perfect, in its interrogative form, has this structure:
Have/has + subject + past participle + …?

  • Have/has: the third person singular changes from have to has;
  • Regular past participles are formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of verbs. Irregular past participles have to be learned by heart.
AUXILIARY VERBSUBJECTPAST PARTICIPLEQUESTION MARK
HaveI/youworked?
Hashe/she/itworked?
Havewe/you/theyworked?
  1. Past situations with results in the present
    • Have I lost my car keys?
    • Has he put on weight?
    • Have we finished our homework?
  2. Finished actions referring to life experience up to now
    • Have I talked to her four times?
    • Has she visited this castle?
    • Have they travelled without their computer?

We use the present perfect, in its interrogative form, to ask about:

  1. Past situations with results in the present;
  2. Finished actions referring to life experience up to now.

We use the present perfect, in the interrogative form, to ask about completed actions which have occurred in the past, are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

The structure is:
Have/has + subject + past participle + …? (has for the third person singular)

For example:
— “Has it rained the whole morning?” = We use the present perfect because the past action still has effects on the present (for example, the streets are still wet).
♦ “Did it rain the whole morning?” = We use the past simple because the past action is finished and there’s no need to emphasise its effects on the present.

NOTE: The past participle is usually used to form the perfect tenses, and it indicates past or completed actions. It is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs, whereas irregular verbs have different forms which need to be studied by heart.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

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