Unit 1.1

Present perfect v vprašalni obliki


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Introduction

Dovršni sedanjik [present perfect] je čas, ki ga uporabljamo za opisovanje zaključenih dejanj, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti, so povezana s sedanjostjo in imajo še vedno vpliv nanjo.

Glagol v vprašalni obliki uporabljamo za postavljanje vprašanj.

Form

Present perfect ima v vprašalni obliki strukturo:
Have + subject + past participle + …?

  • To Have: v tretji osebi ednine se have spremeni v has;
  • Pravilni pretekli particip tvorimo z dodajanjem -d ali -ed osnovni obliki glagola.
    Nepravilni pretekli particip se moramo naučiti na pamet.
Have Subject Past Participle Question Mark
Have I/you worked ?
Has he/she/it worked ?
Have we/you/they worked ?

Example

  1. Pretekle situacije z rezultati v sedanjosti
    • Have I lost my car keys?
    • Has he put on weight?
    • Have we finished our homework?
  2. Zaključena dejanja, ki se nanašajo na življenjske izkušnje do tega trenutka
    • Have I talked to her four times?
    • Has she visited this castle?
    • Have they travelled without their computer?

Use

Present perfect v vprašalni obliki uporabljamo za postavljanje vprašanj o:

  1. Preteklih situacijah z rezultati v sedanjosti;
  2. Zaključenih dejanjih, ki se nanašajo na življenjske izkušnje do tega trenutka.

Summary

Dovršni sedanjik [present perfect] v vprašalni obliki uporabljamo za spraševanje o zaključenih dejanjih, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti, so povezana s sedanjostjo, in imajo še vedno vpliv nanjo.

Struktura je:
Have + subject + past participle + …? (has v tretji osebi ednine)

Na primer:
— “Has she worked on an important project this morning?” = Present perfect uporabljamo, ker ima preteklo dejanje še vedno vpliv na sedanjost.
♦ “Did she work on an important project yesterday?” = Past simple uporabljamo, ker je preteklo dejanje zaključeno in ni potrebe po poudarjanju njegovih vplivov na sedanjost.

NOTE: Pretekli particip ponavadi uporabljamo za tvorjenje preteklih glaolskih časov; nanaša se na pretekla ali zaključena dejanja. Tvorimo ga z dodajanjem -d ali -ed osnovni obliki pravilnih glagolov, medtem ko imajo nepravilni glagoli različne oblike, ki se jih moramo naučiti na pamet.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

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