Unit 1.2

Present perfect in past simple


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Introduction

Dovršni sedanjik [present perfect] uporabljamo za opisovanje zaključenih dejanj, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti, ampak so povezana s sedanjostjo in imajo še vedno vpliv nanjo {glej Present perfect, stopnja A2}.

Enostavni preteklik [past simple] uporabljamo za opisovanje situacij, ki so se zgodile in zaključile v preteklosti {glej Past simple, stopnja A1}.

Present perfect in past simple se razlikujeta po obliki in pomenu.

Form

Present perfect in past simple imata različne strukture za naslednje tri oblike.

Trdilna:

  • Present perfect: Subject + have/has + past participle + …
  • Past simple: Subject + Verb (Past tense) + …

Nikalna:

  • Present perfect: Subject + have/has + not + past participle + …
  • Past simple: Subject + did + not + verb + …

Vprašalna:

  • Present perfect: Have/Has + subject + past participle + …?
  • Past simple: Did + subject + verb + …?

Example

Present perfect

  • I have lived in Chicago for 10 years, I still live in Chicago.
  • She hasn’t played the piano in 3 years (the last time was 3 years ago).
  • Have they lived together for a year (they are still together)?

Past simple

  • I lived in Chicago for 10 years, now I live in San Diego.
  • She didn’t play the piano for 3 years, but she started playing again this week.
  • Did they live together for a year (they are not together anymore)?

Use

Present perfect uporabljamo za izražanje karatkih/dolgih nedokončanih dejanj in dogodkov, preteklih situacij z rezultati v sedanjosti, z sedanjimi časovnimi izrazi (this month, today, this year…).

Past simple uporabljamo za izražanje kratkih/dolgih zaključenih dejanj in dogodkov, dogodkov, ki so se v preteklosti ponavljali, preteklih navad s preteklimi časovnimi izrazi (two weeks ago, last year, in 2010, yesterday…).

Summary

Dovršni sedanjik [present perfect] in enostavni preteklik [past simple] se razlikujeta po pomenu in obliki.

Na primer:
— “I have been to the cinema four times this month.” = Present perfect glagola to be uporabljamo zato, da izrazimo, da je govorec začel dejanje v časovnem obdobju, ki še ni zaključeno (ta mesec).
— “I went to the cinema four times last month.” = Past simple glagola to go uporabljamo zato, da izrazimo, da je govorec dejanje zaključil v že minulem trenutku (prejšnji mesec).

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

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