Unit 7.1

Must: modalni glagoli obveze


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Introduction

Modalni glagol [modal verb] je tip pomožnega glagola, ki nima pomena sam po sebi, ampak modificira glavni glagol, spreminja njegov pomen in dodaja podrobnosti o dejanju.

Must je tip modalnega glagola, ki ga uporabljamo za izražanje gotovosti, nuje ali močne obveze, ki ne prihaja od zunaj, ampak je osebno mnenje. Ko je v nikalni obliki, izraža tudi prepoved.

Form

Must lahko izražamo v treh oblikah in se ne spremeni niti v tretji osebi ednine.

Affirmative

Njegova struktura v trdilni obliki je:
Subject + must + verb + …

Subject must Verb
I/You must work
He/She/It must work
We/You/They must work

Negative

Njegova struktura v nikalni obliki je:
Subject + must not + verb + …

  • Kratka oblika nikalne oblike je: mustn’t.
Subject must + not Verb
I/You must not work
He/She/It must not work
We/You/They must not work

Interrogative

Njegova struktura v vprašalni obliki je:
Must + subject + verb + …?

Must Subject Verb Question
Mark
Must I/you work ?
Must he/she/it work ?
Must we/you/they work ?

Example

  1. Gotovost/zelo pričakovano
    • It must be her flat. It’s number 13.
    • This house must be in a good state! They renovated it last year.
    • Must they be rich? They live in a luxury flat in the city center.
  2.  Močna obveza
    • I must search for a new house, my contract ends soon.
    • She must clean the kids’ clothes, they got very dirty at the park.
    • Must we be on time?
  3. Potreba
    • I must buy a new fridge.
    • He must search for a student flat.
    • Must they paint the walls?
  4. Prepoved (nikalna oblika)
    • You must not give your address on online forums!
    • He must not surf the internet while working!
    • You mustn’t smoke in this restaurant.

Use

Must uporabimo, ko:

  1. Smo prepričani glede nečesa, je nekaj zelo pričakovano (trdilna oblika);
  2. Obstaja močna obveznost (trdilna, vprašalna oblika);
  3. Nekaj je nujno potrebno (trdilna, vprašalna oblika);
  4. Prepoved (nikalna oblika).

Summary

Modalni glagol [modal verb] must izraža gotovost, močno obvezo, potrebo ali prepoved, ki ne prihaja od zunaj. Must lahko izrazimo na tri načine; ne spremeni se niti v prvi osebi ednine.

Strukture so:

  • Trdilna: Subject + must + verb + …
  • Nikalna: Subject + must not + verb + …
  • Vprašalna: Must + subject + verb + …?

Na primer:
— Trdilna: “I must visit my parents soon.” = Osebek čuti obveznost.
— Nikalna: “You must not try drugs.” = Izraža prepoved.
— Vprašalna: Must I do it now? = Osebek sprašuje, ali mora nekaj narediti v tistem trenutku.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

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