Unit 8.1

Can in could: modalni glagoli zmožnosti

Modal Verbs

Modalni glagol [modal verb] je tip pomožnega glagola, ki nima pomena sam po sebi, ampak modificira glavni glagol, spreminja njegov pomen in daje več podrobnosti o dejanju.

Could je pretekla oblika modalnega glagola can. To obliko pomožnih modalnih glagolov uporabljamo za izražanje idej zmožnosti ali dovoljenja {glej Modalni glagoli zmožnosti – Can, stopnja A1}.

Can/could imata vedno enako obliko, tudi v tretji osebi ednine. Uporabljamo ju kot modalna glagola in imata tri možne oblike.

Affirmative

Struktura v trdilni obliki je:
Subject + could + verb + …

Subject could Verb
I/You could work
He/She/It could work
We/You/They could work

Negative

Struktura v nikalni obliki je:
Subject + could + not + verb + …

  • Kratka verzija nikalne oblike je: can’t/couldn’t.
Subject could + not Verb
I/You could not work
He/She/It could not work
We/You/They could not work

Interrogative

Struktura v vprašalni obliki je:
Can/could + subject + verb + …?

Could Subject Verb Question
Mark
Could I/you work ?
Could he/she/it work ?
Could we/you/they work ?
  1. Zmožnost
    • I can cook very well.
    • I could cook very well when I wanted to (not always).
  2. Vljudna ponudba
    • Can I make you dinner?
    • Could I make you dinner?
  3. Vljudna zahteva
    • Can you pass me the milk from the fridge?
    • Could you pass me the milk from the fridge, please?
  4. Možnost
    • She can rent this flat. She has a good job.
    • She could rent this flat if she finds a job.
  5. Neodobravanje
    • How can you call the owner without telling me?
    • How could you call the owner without telling me?
  6. Z glagoli čutil (smell, taste, see, hear, touch…) in mentalnih procesov (think, believe, remember, understand…)
    • The house was in a bad state. I can smell the moisture.
    • The house was in a bad state. I could smell the moisture.

Could je pretekla, manj neposredna in bolj vljudna oblika can; načini uporabe so skoraj enaki, le da se could lahko nanaša tudi na preteklost. Poleg tega jo uporabljamo za izražanje neodobravanja in z glagoli čutil in mentalnih procesov, ter v sedanjiku, ko želimo biti vljudni. Could uporabljamo za izražanje:

  1. Zmožnosti;
  2. Vljudnih ponudb;
  3. Vljudnih zahtev;
  4. Možnosti;
  5. Neodobravanja;
  6. Z glagoli čutil (smell, taste, see, hear, touch…) in mentalnih procesov (think, believe, remember, understand…).

Modalna glagola [modal verbs] can in could izražata zmožnosti, ponudbe, zahteve in možnosti. Could uporabljamo tudi za izražanje neodobravanja, čutil in mentalnih procesov, poleg tega predstavlja preteklo obliko can.

Strukture so:

  • Trdilna: Subject + could + verb + …
  • Nikalna: Subject + could + not + verb + …
  • Vprašalna: Could + subject + verb + …?

Na primer:
— Trdilna: “Moving could be stressful.“ / “Moving can be stressful.“ = S could izrazimo, da je premikanje nekaj stresnega s can, da je to stresno večino časa.
— Nikalna: “We couldn´t share a flat!“ / “We can´t share a flat!“ = Could uporabljamo za izražanje zavrnitve in can za izražanje neizvedljivosti.
— Vprašalna: “Could I use the microwave?“ / “Can I use the microwave?“ = Could uporabljamo za spraševanje na bolj vljuden način.

NOTE: Could be uporabljamo za dajanje ali odvzem dovoljenja.
—  “Could I leave early today?” – “Yes, you can”; “No, you can’t.“ / “Yes, you could“; “No, you couldn’t.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

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