Unit 8.1

Can in could: modalni glagoli zmožnosti


Print This Post Print This Post

Advertising

Introduction

Modalni glagol [modal verb] je tip pomožnega glagola, ki nima pomena sam po sebi, ampak modificira glavni glagol, spreminja njegov pomen in daje več podrobnosti o dejanju.

Could je pretekla oblika modalnega glagola can. To obliko pomožnih modalnih glagolov uporabljamo za izražanje idej zmožnosti ali dovoljenja {glej Modalni glagoli zmožnosti – Can, stopnja A1}.

Form

Can/could imata vedno enako obliko, tudi v tretji osebi ednine. Uporabljamo ju kot modalna glagola in imata tri možne oblike.

Affirmative

Struktura v trdilni obliki je:
Subject + could + verb + …

Subject could Verb
I/You could work
He/She/It could work
We/You/They could work

Negative

Struktura v nikalni obliki je:
Subject + could + not + verb + …

  • Kratka verzija nikalne oblike je: can’t/couldn’t.
Subject could + not Verb
I/You could not work
He/She/It could not work
We/You/They could not work

Interrogative

Struktura v vprašalni obliki je:
Can/could + subject + verb + …?

Could Subject Verb Question
Mark
Could I/you work ?
Could he/she/it work ?
Could we/you/they work ?

Example

  1. Zmožnost
    • I can cook very well.
    • I could cook very well when I wanted to (not always).
  2. Vljudna ponudba
    • Can I make you dinner?
    • Could I make you dinner?
  3. Vljudna zahteva
    • Can you pass me the milk from the fridge?
    • Could you pass me the milk from the fridge, please?
  4. Možnost
    • She can rent this flat. She has a good job.
    • She could rent this flat if she finds a job.
  5. Neodobravanje
    • How can you call the owner without telling me?
    • How could you call the owner without telling me?
  6. Z glagoli čutil (smell, taste, see, hear, touch…) in mentalnih procesov (think, believe, remember, understand…)
    • The house was in a bad state. I can smell the moisture.
    • The house was in a bad state. I could smell the moisture.

Use

Could je pretekla, manj neposredna in bolj vljudna oblika can; načini uporabe so skoraj enaki, le da se could lahko nanaša tudi na preteklost. Poleg tega jo uporabljamo za izražanje neodobravanja in z glagoli čutil in mentalnih procesov, ter v sedanjiku, ko želimo biti vljudni. Could uporabljamo za izražanje:

  1. Zmožnosti;
  2. Vljudnih ponudb;
  3. Vljudnih zahtev;
  4. Možnosti;
  5. Neodobravanja;
  6. Z glagoli čutil (smell, taste, see, hear, touch…) in mentalnih procesov (think, believe, remember, understand…).

Summary

Modalna glagola [modal verbs] can in could izražata zmožnosti, ponudbe, zahteve in možnosti. Could uporabljamo tudi za izražanje neodobravanja, čutil in mentalnih procesov, poleg tega predstavlja preteklo obliko can.

Strukture so:

  • Trdilna: Subject + could + verb + …
  • Nikalna: Subject + could + not + verb + …
  • Vprašalna: Could + subject + verb + …?

Na primer:
— Trdilna: “Moving could be stressful.“ / “Moving can be stressful.“ = S could izrazimo, da je premikanje nekaj stresnega s can, da je to stresno večino časa.
— Nikalna: “We couldn´t share a flat!“ / “We can´t share a flat!“ = Could uporabljamo za izražanje zavrnitve in can za izražanje neizvedljivosti.
— Vprašalna: “Could I use the microwave?“ / “Can I use the microwave?“ = Could uporabljamo za spraševanje na bolj vljuden način.

NOTE: Could be uporabljamo za dajanje ali odvzem dovoljenja.
—  “Could I leave early today?” – “Yes, you can”; “No, you can’t.“ / “Yes, you could“; “No, you couldn’t.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

Exercises


The exercises are not created yet. If you would like to get involve with their creation, be a contributor.



Ambassadors

Open TextBooks are collaborative projects, with people from all over the world bringing their skills and interests to join in the compilation and dissemination of knowledge to everyone and everywhere.

Become an Ambassador and write your textbooks.

Online Teaching

Become a Books4Languages Online tutor & teacher.

More information here about how to be a tutor.

Translations


Ambassadors

The Books4Languages is a collaborative projects, with people from all over the world bringing their skills and interests to join in the compilation and dissemination of knowledge to everyone, everywhere.

License