Can and Could: Modals of Ability


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Introduction

Modalni glagol [modal verb] je vrsta pomoćnog glagola koji sam nema značenje, ali može oblikovati glavni glagol tako da mu mijenja značenje i daje više informacija o njegovoj radnji.

Could je oblik glagola can u perfektu. Ova vrsta pomoćnih modalnih glagola koristi se za izricanje sposobnosti ili dopuštenja {vidi Modals of Ability – Can, A1 Level}.

Form

Can/could ostaju isti čak i u trećem licu jednine. Koriste se kao modalni glagol u tri oblika.

Affirmative

Struktura u potvrdnom obliku:
Subject + could + verb + …

Subject could Verb
I/You could work
He/She/It could work
We/You/They could work

Negative

Struktura u negativnom obliku:
Subject + could + not + verb + …

  • Skraćeni negativni oblik: can’t/couldn’t.
Subject could + not Verb
I/You could not work
He/She/It could not work
We/You/They could not work

Interrogative

Struktura u upitnom obliku:
Could + subject + verb + …?

Could Subject Verb Question
Mark
Could I/you work ?
Could he/she/it work ?
Could we/you/they work ?

Example

  1. Sposobnost
    • I can cook very well.
    • I could cook very well when I wanted to (not always).
  2. Pristojna ponuda
    • Can I make you dinner?
    • Could I make you dinner?
  3. Pristojni zahtjev
    • Can you pass me the milk from the fridge?
    • Could you pass me the milk from the fridge, please?
  4. Mogućnost
    • She can rent this flat. She has a good job.
    • She could rent this flat if she finds a job.
  5. Neslaganje
    • How can you call the owner without telling me?
    • How could you call the owner without telling me?
  6. S riječima koje opisuju osjete (smelltasteseeheartouch…) i mentalne procese (thinkbelieverememberunderstand…)
    • The house was in a bad state. I can smell the moisture.
    • The house was in a bad state. I could smell the moisture.

Use

Could je glagol u prošlom vremenu, manje je direktan i pristojniji oblik glagola can. Koriste se gotovo jednako. No, could se koristi za izricanje neslaganja te s riječima koje opisuju osjete i mentalne procese. Could se koristi za izricanje:

  1. Sposobnosti;
  2. Pristojne ponude;
  3. Pristojnog zahtjeva;
  4. Mogućnosti;
  5. Neslaganja;
  6. Osjeta (smelltasteseeheartouch…) i mentalnih procesa (thinkbelieverememberunderstand…).

Summary

Modalni glagoli cancould izriču mogućnost, zahtjeve i sposobnosti. Could se koristi i za izricanje neslaganja, osjeta i mentalnih procesa te je oblik glagola can u prošlom vremenu.

Strukture:

  • Potvrdni oblik: Subject + could + verb + …
  • Negativni oblik: Subject + could + not + verb + …
  • Upitni oblik: Could + subject + verb + …?

Naprimjer:
— Potvrdni oblik: “Moving could be stressful.“ / “Moving can be stressful.“ = Could se koristi kako bi se prikazalo da selidba ponekad može biti stresna, a can da je selidba uvijek stresna.
— Negativni oblik: “We couldn´t share a flat!“ / “We can´t share a flat!“ = Could se koristi za odbijanje, a can za izricanje nemogućnosti.
— Upitni oblik: “Could I use the microwave?“ / “Can I use the microwave?“ = Could se koristi za pristojnije postavljanje pitanja.

NAPOMENA: Ne koristimo could za odbijanje ili davanje dopuštenja.
—  “Could I leave early today?” – “Yes, you can”; “No, you can’t.“ / “Yes, you could“; “No, you couldn’t.

Pregledajte sadržaj u odjeljku [Form] te bacite pogled na odjeljak [Example] koji pokazuje njegovu upotrebu unutar konteksta.

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