Present Perfect vs Past Simple


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Introduction

Jednostavno prošlo vrijeme [past simple] je glagolsko vrijeme koje se koristi za izricanje radnji i događaja koji su se dogodili u prošlosti {vidi Past Simple, A1 Level}.

Sadašnje složeno vrijeme [present perfect] je glagolsko vrijeme koje se koristi za izricanje radnji koje su se dogodile u prošlosti, koje su povezane sa sadašnjošću te imaju utjecaj na nju {vidi Present Perfect, A2 Level}.

Past simpleprsesent perfect se razlikuju po značenju i tvorbi.

Form

Past simple i present perfect imaju drugačije strukture u tri oblika:

Potvrdni oblik:

  • Present perfect: Subject + have/has + past participle + …
  • Past simple: Subject + Verb (Past tense) + …

Negativni oblik:

  • Present perfect: Subject + have/has + not + past participle + …
  • Past simple: Subject + did + not + verb + …

Upitni oblik:

  • Present perfect: Have/Has + subject + past participle + …?
  • Past simple: Did + subject + verb + …?

Example

Present perfect

  • I have lived in Chicago for 10 years, I still live in Chicago.
  • She hasn’t played the piano in 3 years (the last time was 3 years ago).
  • Have they lived together for a year (they are still together)?

Past simple

  • I lived in Chicago for 10 years, now I live in San Diego.
  • She didn’t play the piano for 3 years, but she started playing again this week.
  • Did they live together for a year (they are not together anymore)?

Use

Present perfect koristimo za izricanje kratkih/dugih nezavršenih radnji i događaja, radnji u prošlosti s posljedicama na sadašnjost, s vremenskim izrazima kao što su: this monthtodaythis year

Past simple se koristi za izricanje kratkih/dugih završenih radnji i događaja, radnji koje se ponavljaju te navika koje su se događale u prošlosti, s vremenskim izrazima kao što su: two weeks ago, last year, in 2010, yesterday

Summary

Jednostavno prošlo vrijeme [past simple] i sadašnje složeno vrijeme [present perfect] razlikuju se u značenju i tvorbi.

Naprimjer:
— “have been to the cinema four times this month.” = Korisitmo present perfect glagola to be jer je radnja započela u vremenskom periodu koji još nije završio (this month).
— “went to the cinema four times last month.” = Koristimo past simple glagola to go jer je radnja završena u prošlosti (last month).

Pregledajte sadržaj u odjeljku [Form] te bacite pogled na odjeljak [Example] koji pokazuje njegovu upotrebu unutar konteksta.

Exercises


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