Unit 1.1

Present perfect v trdilni obliki


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Introduction

Dovršni sedanjik [present perfect] je čas, ki ga uporabljamo za opisovanje zaključenih dejanj, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti, so povezana s sedanjostjo in nanjo še vedno vplivajo.

Glagol v trdilni obliki potrjuje nekaj glede osebka.

Form

Present perfect ima v trdilni obliki strukturo:
Subject + have/has + past participle + …

  • To Have: v tretji osebi ednine se have spremeni v has;
    • Kratke oblike v trdilni obliki so: I’ve – you’ve – he’s…
  • Pravilni particip preteklika tvorimo z dodajanjem -d ali -ed osnovi glagola.
  • Nepravilni particip perfekta se moramo naučiti na pamet.
Subject have/has Past Participle
I/You have worked
He/She/It has worked
We/You/They have worked

present perfectom pogosto uporabljamo časovne izraze, kot so: ever, never, before, yet, just, already, still, so far, up until now

{Glej nepravilne glagole v poglavju Pretekli particip}.

Example

  1. Pretekle situacije z rezultati v sedanjosti
    • I have lost my car keys!
    • He has put on weight.
    • We have finished our homework!
  2. Zaključena dejanja, ki se nanašajo na življenjske izkušnje do tega trenutka
    • I have talked to her four times.
    • This is the best castle she has ever visited.
    • They have never travelled without their computer.

Use

Present perfect v trdilni obliki uporabljamo za potrjevanje:

  1. Preteklih situacij z rezultati v sedanjosti;
  2. Zaključenih dejanj, ki se nanašajo na življenjske izkušnje do tega trenutka.

Summary

Dovršni sedanjik [present perfect] v trdilni obliki uporabljamo za opisovanje zaključenih dejanj, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti, so povezana s sedanjostjo in imajo še vedno vpliv nanjo.

Struktura je:
Subject + To Have + past participle + … (has v tretji osebi ednine)

Na primer:
— “She has worked on an important project these morning.” = Present perfect uporabimo, ker ima preteklo dejanje še vedno vpliv na sedanjost.
♦ “She worked on an important project yesterday.” = Past simple uporabimo, ker je preteklo dejanje zaključeno in ni potrebe po poudarjanju njegovega vpliva na sedanjost.

NOTE: Pretekli particip ponavadi uporabljamo za tvorjenje preteklih glagolskih časov; nanaša se na pretekla ali zaključena dejanja. Tvorimo ga tako, da osnovi pravilnih glagolov dodamo -d ali -ed, medtem ko imajo nepravilni glagoli različne stalne oblike, ki se jih moramo naučiti na pamet.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

Exercises


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