Unit 7.1


Have to: modalni glagoli obveze

Modal Verbs

Modalni glagol [modal verb] je tip pomožnega glagola, ki sam po sebi nima pomena, ampak modificira glavni glagol, spreminja njegov pomen in dodaja podrobnosti o dejanjih.

Have to je tip pomožnega glagola, ki ga uporabljamo za izražanje gotovosti, potrebe ali močne obveze, ki prihaja od zunaj, od zunanjih faktorjev.

Have to lahko izražamo na tri načine:

Affirmative

Njegova struktura v trdilni obliki je:
Subject + have/has to + verb + …

  • Have/has: v trdilni obliki se tretja oseba ednine spremeni iz have v has.
Subjecthave/has to Verb
I/Youhave towork
He/She/Ithas towork
We/You/Theyhave towork

Negative

Struktura v nikalni obliki je:
Subject + do/does + not + have to + verb + …

  • Do/does: v nikalni obliki se tretja oseba ednine spremeni iz do v does;
  • Kratke oblike nikalnih oblik so enake kot kratke oblike present simpla: I don’t – you don’t – he doesn’t…
Subjectdo/does + nothave toVerb
I/Youdo nothave towork
He/She/Itdoes nothave towork
We/You/Theydo nothave towork

Interrogative

Struktura v vprašalni obliki je:
Do/Does + subject + have to + verb + …?

  • Do/does: v vprašalni obliki se tretja oseba ednine spremeni iz dodoes.
Do/DoesSubjecthave toVerbQuestion
Mark
DoI/youhave towork?
Doeshe/she/ithave towork?
Dowe/you/theyhave towork?
  1. Gotovost/zelo pričakovano
    • This has to be her flat! She said it’s floor 2, flat 13.
    • This house doesn’t have to be in a good state.
    • Do they have to be rich? They live in a luxury flat in the city center.
  2. Močna obveza
    • The owner said I have to move to another house.
    • She doesn’t have to clean the kid’s clothes everyday.
    • Do we have to clean the mess we made in the kitchen?
  3. Potreba
    • I have to buy a new fridge, the one I have is broken.
    • Alissa doesn’t have to search for a student flat.
    • Do they have to paint the walls?
  4. Brez obveze (nikalna oblika)
    • We don´t have to ride a horse.
    • He doesn’t have to clean his room.
    • They don´t have to return from the island?

Have to uporabljamo za izražanje obveze, ki je rezultat zunanjih faktorjev. Uporabljamo jo, da pokažemo:

  1. Da je nekaj zelo pričakovano ali gotovo (trdilna, nikalna, vprašalna oblika);
  2. Močna obveza (trdilna, vprašalna oblika);
  3. Potreba (trdilna, nikalna, vprašalna oblika);
  4. Ni potrebe ali obveze nekaj narediti (nikalna oblika).

Modalni glagol [modal verb] have to izraža gotovost, strogo obvezo, potrebo ali neobvezo, ki prihaja od zunaj, od zunanjih dejavnikov.

Strukture so:

  • Trdilna: Subject + have/has to + verb + …
  • Nikalna: Subject + do/does + not + have to + verb + …
  • Vprašalna: Do/Does + subject + have to + verb + …?

Na primer
— Trdilna: “I have to go to school every day.” = Osebek mora vsak dan v šolo.
— Nikalna: “She doesn’t have to go to school every day.” = Osebku ni treba vsak dan v šolo.
— Vprašalna: “Does she have to go to school every day?” = Sprašujemo, ali je osebku treba vsak dan v šolo.

NOTE: Don’t have to (nikalna oblika have to) ponavadi izraža, da nečesa ni potrebno narediti.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

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English Grammar A2 Level for Slovene speakers Copyright © 2018 by books4languages. All Rights Reserved.

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