Unit 7.1

Have to: Modales de Obligación


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Introduction

Un verbo modal [modal verb] es un tipo de verbo auxiliar (ayudante) que no tiene significado solo, pero modifica el verbo principal, cambia su significado y da más detalles sobre la acción.

Have to es un tipo de verbo modal auxiliar utilizado para expresar certeza, necesidad u obligación fuerte que viene de fuera, de factores externos.

Form

Se puede expresar have to de tres formas:

Afirmativo

Su estructura en la forma afirmativa, es:
Subject + have/has to + verb + …

  • Have/has: en la forma afirmativa, la tercera persona del singular cambia de have a has.
Subject have/has to Verb
I/You have to work
He/She/It has to work
We/You/They have to work

Negativo

Su estructura en la forma negativa, es:
Subject + do/does + not + have to + verb + …

  • Do/does: en la forma negativa, la tercera persona del singular cambia de do a does;
  • Las formas abreviadas de la forma negativa son iguales a la forma abreviada de present simple: I don’t – you don’t – he doesn’t…
Subject do/does + not have to Verb
I/You do not have to work
He/She/It does not have to work
We/You/They do not have to work

Interrogativo

Su estructura, en la forma interrogativa, es:
Do/Does + subject + have to + verb + …?

  • Do/does: en la forma interrogativa, la tercera persona del singular cambia de do a does
Do/Does Subject have to Verb Question
Mark
Do I/you have to work ?
Does he/she/it have to work ?
Do we/you/they have to work ?

Example

  1. Obligación fuerte
    • The owner said I have to move to another house.
    • She doesn’t have to clean the kid’s clothes everyday.
    • Do we have to clean the mess we made in the kitchen?
  2. Necesidad
    • I have to buy a new fridge, the one I have is broken.
    • Alissa doesn’t have to search for a student flat.
    • Do they have to paint the walls?
  3. No necesidad u obligación de hacer algo (negativo)
    • We don´t have to ride a horse.
    • He doesn’t have to clean his room.
    • They don´t have to return from the island?
  4. Algo es razonablemente esperado o una certeza.
    • This has to be her flat! She said it’s floor 2, flat 13.
    • The roses don’t have to be in a good state.
    • Do they have to boast like that? We know they are rich.

Use

Usamos have to para mostrar que hay una obligación impuesta por factores externos. Se utiliza para mostrar:

  1. Una obligación fuerte (afirmativo, interrogativo);
  2. Una necesidad (afirmative, negativo, interrogativo);
  3. No hay necesidad u obligación de hacer algo (negativo);
  4. Que algo es razonablemente esperado o una certeza (afirmativo, negativo, interrogativo).

Summary

El verbo modal [modal verb] have to expresa certeza, obligación fuerte, necesidad o no obligación que viene de fuera, de factores externos.

Las estructuras son:

  • Afirmativo: Subject + have/has to + verb + …
  • Negativo: Subject + do/does + not + have to + verb + …
  • Interrogativo: Do/does + subject + have to + verb + …?

Por ejemplo:
— Afirmativo: «I have to go to school every day.» = El sujeto está obligado a ir al colegio todos los días.
— Negativo: «She doesn’t have to go to school every day.» = No es necesario que el sujeto vaya al colegio todos los días.
— Interrogativo: «Does she have to go to school every day?» = Preguntamos si el sujeto está obligado a ir al colegio todos los días.

NOTA: Normalmente, don’t have to (la forma negativa have to) expresa que algo no es necesario hacer.

Vamos a revisar este contenido dentro de la sección {Form}. Echa un vistazo a la sección {Example} que muestra su uso en contexto.

Exercises


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