Unit 1.1

Present perfect v nikalni obliki


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Introduction

Dovršni sedanjik [present perfect] je čas, ki ga uporabljamo za opisovanaje zaključenih dejanj, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti, so povezana s sedanjostjo in imajo še vedno vpliv nanjo.

Glagol v nikalni obliki zanika nekaj glede osebka.

Form

Present perfect ima v nikalni obliki strukturo:
Subject + have/has + not + past participle + …

  • To Have: v tretji osebi ednine se have spremeni v has;
    • Kratke oblike v nikalni obliki so: I haven’t – you haven’t – she hasn’t…
  • Pravilni pretekli particip tvorimo z dodajanjem -d ali -ed osnovi glagola. Nepravilni pretekli particip se moramo naučiti na pamet.
Subject have/has + not Past Participle
I/You have not worked
He/She/It has not worked
We/You/They have not worked

Example

  1. Pretekle situacije z rezultati v sedanjosti
    • I haven’t lost my car keys!
    • He hasn’t put on weight.
    • We haven’t finished our homework!
  2. Zaključena dejanja, ki se nanašajo na življenjske izkušnje do tega trenutka
    • I haven’t talked to her four times.
    • She hasn’t visited this castle.
    • They haven’t travelled without their computer.

Use

Present perfect v nikalni obliki uporabljamo za zanikanje:

  1. Preteklih situacij z rezultati v sedanjosti;
  2. Zaključenih dejanj, ki se nanašajo na življenjske izkušnje do tega trenutka.

Summary

Dovršni sedanjik [present perfect] v nikalni obliki uporabljamo za zanikanje zaključenih dejanj, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti, so povezana s sedanjostjo in imajo še vedno vpliv nanjo.

Struktura:
Subject + have/has + not + past participle + … (has v tretji osebi ednine)

Na primer:
— “She hasn’t worked on an important project this morning.” = Present perfect uporabimo, ker ima preteklo dejanje še vedno vpliv na sedanjost.
♦ “She didn’t work on an important project yesterday.” = Past simple uporabimo, ker je preteklo dejanje zaključeno in ni potrebe po poudarjanju njegovega vpliva na sedanjost.

NOTE: Pretekli particip ponavadi uporabljamo za tvorjenje preteklih glagolskih časov; nanaša se na pretekla in zaključena dejanja. Tvorimo ga z dodajanjem -d ali -ed osnovni obliki pravilnih glagolov, medtem ko imajo nepravilni glagoli različne stalne oblike, ki se jih moramo naučiti na pamet.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

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