Unit 1.1

Present Perfect Interrogative

Introduction

The present perfect is a tense used to express completed actions which have occurred in the past, but are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

When expressed in its interrogative form, the verb is used to ask questions.

Form

The present perfect, in its interrogative form, has this structure:
Have + subject + past participle + …?

  • Have/has: the third person singular changes from have to has;
  • Regular past participles are formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of verbs;
  • Irregular past participles have to be learned by heart.
Have Subject Past Participle Question
Mark
Have I/you worked ?
Has he/she/it worked ?
Have we/you/they worked ?

 

Example

  1. Have I been called?
    Has he been arrested?
    Have we missed the bus?
    Have you had
    enough time
    ? 
  2. Have you been to Costa Rica?
    Has she visited London?
    Have you ever eaten pizza before?
    Have
    they ever played chess?

Use

We use present perfect, in its interrogative form, to ask about:

  1. past situations with results in the present;
  2. finished actions referring to life experience up to now.

Summary

We use the present perfect, in the interrogative form, to ask about completed actions which have occurred in the past, are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

When we use the present perfect in its interrogative form, we start with have followed by the subject and a past participle (the sentence ends with a question mark). In the third person singular, we use has.

NOTE: The past participle is usually used to form the perfect tenses, and it indicates past or completed actions. It is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs, whereas irregular verbs have different forms which need to be studied by heart.

For example:
— “Has she worked on an important project this morning?” = We use the present perfect because the past action still has effects on the present (for example, the streets are still wet).
♦ “Did she work on an important project yesterday?” = We use the past simple because the past action is finished and there’s no need to emphasise its effects on the present.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

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