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Unit 1.1

Present Perfect Affirmative

Verbs

The present perfect is a tense used to express completed actions which have occurred in the past, are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

When expressed in its affirmative form, the verb confirms something about the subject.

The present perfect, in its affirmative form, has this structure:
Subject + have/has + past participle + …

  • Have/has: the third person singular changes from have to has;
    • Short forms of the affirmative form are: I’ve – you’ve – he’s…
  • Regular past participles are formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of verbs. Irregular past participles have to be learned by heart.
SUBJECTAUXILIARY VERBPAST PARTICIPLE
I/Youhaveworked
He/She/Ithasworked
We/You/Theyhaveworked

With the present perfect tense we often use time expressions like: ever, never, before, yet, just, already, still, so far, up until now

{Check the topic Past Participle to learn irregular verbs}.

  1. Past situations with results in the present
    • I have lost my car keys!
    • He has put on weight.
    • We have finished our homework!
  2. Finished actions referring to life experiences up to now
    • I have talked to her four times.
    • This is the best castle she has ever visited.
    • They have never travelled without their computer.

We use the present perfect, in its affirmative form, to confirm:

  1. Past situations with results in the present;
  2. Finished actions referring to life experience up to now.

We use the present perfect, in the affirmative form, to confirm completed actions which have occurred in the past, are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

The structure is:
Subject + have/has + past participle + … (has for the third person singular)

For example:
— “It has rained the whole morning.” = We use the present perfect because the past action still has effects on the present (for example, the streets are still wet).
♦ “It rained the whole morning.” = We use the past simple because the past action is finished and there’s no need to emphasise its effects on the present.

NOTE: The past participle is usually used to form the perfect tenses, and it indicates past or completed actions. It is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs, whereas irregular verbs have different fixed forms which need to be studied by heart.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

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