Unit 1.1

Present Perfect Negative

Tenses

The present perfect is a tense used to express completed actions which have occurred in the past, are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

When expressed in its negative form, the verb denies something about the subject.

The present perfect, in its negative form, has this structure:
Subject + have/has + not + past participle + …

Subjecthave/has + notPast Participle
I/Youhave notworked
He/She/Ithas notworked
We/You/Theyhave notworked

Short forms of the negative form are: I haven’t – you haven’t – she hasn’t…

{Check the topic Past Participle to learn irregular verbs}.

Past situations with results in the present

  • I haven’t been lucky!
  • He hasn’t been born.
  • We haven’t had the same experience!

Finished actions referring to life experiences up to now

  • I haven’t talked to her four times.
  • She hasn’t visited this castle.
  • It’s probable that they haven’t travelled without their computer.

We use present perfect, in its negative form, to deny something about:

  1. Past situations with results in the present;
  2. Finished actions referring to life experience up to now.

We use the present perfect, in the negative form, to deny completed actions which have occurred in the past, are connected to the present and still have effects on it.

When we use the present perfect in its negative form, we start with the subject, followed by have not and a past participle. In the third person singular, we use has not.

NOTE: The past participle is usually used to form the perfect tenses, and it indicates past or completed actions. It is formed by adding -d or -ed to the base form of regular verbs, whereas irregular verbs have different fixed forms which need to be studied off by heart.

For example:
— “It hasn’t rained the whole month.” = We use the present perfect because the past action still has effects on the present (for example, the water levels are low).
♦ “It didn’t rain last  month.” = We use the past simple because the past action is finished and there’s no need to emphasise its effects on the present.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

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