Unit 1.2

Past Participle


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The Past participle is a verb that is used to form other tenses (such as the present perfect).

Many past participle forms of verbs are irregular.


The Past participle is a form of the verb that is used in formation of past perfect, past perfect continuous, present perfect, present perfect continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous and passive tenses.


Regular past participles follow all the formation rules of past simple that is made by adding -ed at the end of the verbs.

{check the topic Present Perfect}.


Irregular past participle verbs do not follow this rule, we have to learn them by heart.

The most commonly used irregular verbs are:

Verb Past Participle
become become
break broken
bring brought
buy bought
do done
draw drawn
drink drunk
eat eaten
feel felt
find found
go gone
have had
hear heard
keep kept
read read
run run
say said
see seen
teach taught
write written



Past Perfect

  • I had studied every night.
  • He had finished the course this year.
  • We had fought many times.

Past perfect continuous

  • I had been studying every night.
  • He had been finishing the course this year.
  • We had been fighting many times.

Present Perfect

  • I have studied every night this week.
  • He has finished the course recently.
  • We have fought a lot.

Future Perfect

  • I will have studied every night.
  • He will have finished the course by the end of the year.
  • We will have fought a lot.

Future perfect continuous

  • I will have been studying every night for weeks.
  • He will have been finishing the course.
  • We will have been fighting too much.


We use the past participle to form verbs in different tenses.


The past participle is a verb form which is used in the formation of many tenses. It is made by adding -ed at the end of the verbs, but there are many verbs that are irregular.

For example:
— Regular : “Watch” ⇒ “I have watched a great movie tonight.” = We add -ed at the end of the verb.
— Irregular: “Write” ⇒ “I have written many e-mails today.” / “I have writed many e-mails today.” = The verb write is irregular, so it does not follow the rule, but rather changes to written.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.


External link to Past Participle exercises (65).


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