Unit 1.2

Past Participle

Introduction

Past participle beste aditz formak eratzeko erabiltzen den aditza da (present perfect esaterako).

Past participle aditzaren forma asko irregularrak dira.

Form

Past participle past perfect, past perfect continuous,  present perfect, present perfect continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous eta forma pasiboak sortzeko erabiltzen den aditz forma da.

Regular

Past participles erregularrak iragan sinplearen formazio arau guztiak jarraitzen ditu, hau -ed aditzen amaieran gehituz sortzen da.

{Present Perfect gaiean sakatu}.

Irregular

Past participles erregularrek ez dute arau hau jarraitzen, buruz ikasi behar ditugu.

Gehien erabiltzen diren aditz irregularrak hurrengoak dira:

Verb Past Participle
become become
break broken
bring brought
buy bought
do done
draw drawn
drink drunk
eat eaten
feel felt
find found
go gone
have had
hear heard
keep kept
read read
run run
say said
see seen
teach taught
write written

 

Example

Past Perfect

  • I had studied every night.
  • He had finished the course this year.
  • We had fought many times.

Past perfect continuous

  • I had been studying every night.
  • He had been finishing the course this year.
  • We had been fighting many times.

Present Perfect

  • I have studied every night this week.
  • He has finished the course recently.
  • We have fought a lot.

Future Perfect

  • I will have studied every night.
  • He will have finished the course by the end of the year.
  • We will have fought a lot.

Future perfect continuous

  • I will have been studying every night for weeks.
  • He will have been finishing the course.
  • We will have been fighting too much.

Use

Past participle erabiltzen dugu aditzak forma ezberdinetan sortzeko.

Summary

Past participle aditz forma asko sortzeko erabiltzen den aditz forma da. -ed aditzaren amaieran gehituz sortzen da, baina aditz irregular asko daude.

Adibidez:
— Erregularrak : “Watch” ⇒ “I have watched a great movie tonight.” = -ed aditzaren amaieran gehitzen dugu.
— Irregularrak: “Write” ⇒ “I have written many e-mails today.” / “I have writed many e-mails today.” = write aditza irregularra da, ez du araurik jarraitzen, eta aldatu egiten da written-era.

Berrikusi dezagun {Form} atalaren edukia. Begira ezazu erabilera {Examples} atalean testuinguru batean nola erabiltzen den ikusteko.

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