Unit 1.2

Past Participle


The past participle is a verb that is used to form other tenses (such as the present perfect).

Many past participle forms of verbs are irregular.


The past participle is a form of the verb that is used in formation of past perfect, past perfect continuous, present perfect, present perfect continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous and passive tenses.

Past participles can be regular or irregular.

Regular past participle

Regular past participles verbs follow all the formation rules of past simple that is made by adding -ed at the end of the verbs.

Irregular past participle

Irregular past participle verbs do not follow the general rule, we have to learn them by heart.

The most commonly used irregular verbs are:

Verb Past Participle
become become
break broken
bring brought
buy bought
do done
draw drawn
drink drunk
eat eaten
feel felt
find found
go gone
have had
hear heard
keep kept
read read
run run
say said
see seen
teach taught
write written



Regular past participle:

  • I have called you a thousand times. 
  • He had finished the course this year.
  • I am going to finish what we have started.
  • You have played video games all day long. 
  • They had talked so much about it. 

Irregular past participle:

  • I have become a strong person. 
  • You have bought a new car.
  • She has eaten too much food.
  • We had found an abandoned house in the woods.
  • My parents have taught me how to drive.


We use the past participle to form verbs in different tenses.


The past participle is a verb form which is used in the formation of many tenses. It is made by adding -ed at the end of the verbs, but there are many verbs that are irregular.

For example:
— Regular : “Watch” ⇒ “I have watched a great movie tonight.” = We add -ed at the end of the verb.
— Irregular: “Write” ⇒ “I have written many e-mails today.” / “I have writed many e-mails today.” = The verb write is irregular, so it does not follow the rule, but rather changes to written.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

More exercises


External link to Past Participle exercises (65).