Unit 3.1

Pertsona eta gauza izenordain erlatiboak



Izenordainak substantiboen errepikapenak sahiesteko erabiltzen diren hitzak dira {ikusi Subject Pronouns, A1 Level}.

Izenordain erlatiboak klausula erlatioak sarrarazteko erabiltzen dira. Pertsona edo gauzei erreferentzia egiten die klausula nagusiaren subjektua ordezkatuz haren errepikapena klausula erlatiboetan sahiesteko {ikusi  Relative Pronouns, A1 level}.


[Ikusi Relative Pronouns, level A1]

Beste pertsona eta gauza izenordain erlatiboak whom, whose, whomever, whoever eta whichever dira.



  • I called the salesman from whom I bought this watch.
  • This is the hairdresser to whom I wanted to speak.
  • The people, for whom they were waiting, have arrived.


  • Helen, whose father is a baker, lives in an industrial city.
  • This is the painter whose statue is in the main square of the city.
  • This is my cousin whose clothes shop has the most expensive clothes.


  • Whoever was there I don’t care.
  • She’s a kind woman, whoever her friends might be.
  • Hana, whoever comes to the party we have enough cake.


  • We will accept in our team whomever you recommend.
  • Give the gifts to whomever you have missed.
  • He will invite whomever we decide in our last week here.


  • May I go to whichever theater I want?
  • Pick whichever picture you woud like to edit.
  • I will drink whichever wine you buy.


[Ikusi Relative Pronouns, level A1]

Izenordain erlatiboak pertsonak eta gauzak identifikatzeko eta haiei buruzko informazio sekundario/osagarria gehitzeko erabiltzen ditugu. Hurrengoak erabiltzen ditugu:

  • Whom ze pertsonak jasotzen duen ekintza;
  • Whose zerbait ze pertsonarena den aurkitzeko;
  • Whoever subjektua nor den berdin dela adierazteko;
  • Whomever objektua nor den berdin dela adierazteko;
  • Whichever zerbait zer den berdin dela adierazteko.


Izenordain erlatiboak klausula erlatiboetan substantiboaren errepikapenak sahiesteko erabiltzen dira. Izenen atzetik erabiltzen dira.

Gehien erabiltzen diren izenordain erlatioak hurrengoak dira: whom (objektua) pertsonantzako erabiltzen da, whose jabetza erakusteko, whoever (subjektua) nor den berdin denean, whomever (objektua) nor den berdin denean, whichever ze gauza den berdin denean.

— “I am dating the girl whom I met at the restaurant.” = Whom neskari [girl] erreferentzia egiten dio.
— “The girl, whose brother owns this restaurant, is Italian.” = Whose neskari [girl] erreferentzia egiten dio.

Berrikusi dezagun {Form} atalaren edukia. Begira ezazu erabilera {Examples} atalean testuinguru batean nola erabiltzen den ikusteko.


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