Unit 9.1

# Consecutive Clauses

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## Introduction

Consecutive clauses are two clauses linked in one clause by connectors.

## Form

Consecutive clauses are two clauses linked in one sentence by using connectors.

The most commonly used are: as a result, otherwise, therefore

The structures of consecutive clauses are:
Clause 1 + Connector + Clause 2
Connector + Clause 1 + Clause 2

## Example

• The mid-term exam was hard and as a result, nearly everyone in the class got bad marks.
As a result of mixing bright and dark colors in the washing machine, her clothes are ruined.
• They have to write a thesis otherwise they won’t get their diplomas.
They have to go in a suit, otherwise the company won’t accept them.
• He always wanted to have a PhD abroad, therefore he is going to Europe for that.
The cable stopped working, therefore he had to buy a new one.

## Use

We use consecutive clauses to give information about the reasons of actions and about the chronological order in which things happen. Writers mostly use them to create fluency.

In particular:

1. As a result: is used to express the because of something;
2. Otherwise: is used after a proposal or an advice to demonstrate what the results will be if you do not follow it;
3. Therefore: is used with the meaning of for that reason.

## Summary

Consecutive clauses are two clauses linked in one clause by connectors. We use them to give information about the reasons of actions and about the chronological order in which things happen.

The most commonly used are: as a result (which means because of something), otherwise (which is used to demonstrate what the results will be if we do not follow a proposal or advice), therefore (which means for that reason)…

The structures of consecutive clauses are:

1. we start with the first clause followed by the connector and then the second clause;
2. we start with the connector followed by the first clause and then the second clause.

For example:
— “As a result of attending intensive German lessons, she got the B1 certificate in a year.” = She got the B1 certificate in a year, because she attended intensive German lessons.
— “She has to study hard, otherwise she won’t get a scholarship.”  = If she doesn’t study hard, the result will be to not get a scholarship.
— “His parents are very religious, therefore they made him go to a religious school.” = His parents are very religious and for this reason they made him go to a religious school.

Let’s revise this content within the {Form} section. Take a look at the {Example} section that shows its use within a context.

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