Unit 3.2

There is and There are

Verbs

There is/are –це вирази які вживаються для підтвердження (коли стверджувальні), заперечення ( коли заперечні) або перевірки (коли запитальні).

Ми зазвичай знаходимо цю структуру Є/ There is/are у трьох формах:

Affirmative

Singular nouns: There is + singular noun/uncountable noun + …
Plural nouns: There are + plural noun + …

Negative

Singular nouns: There is + not + singular noun/uncountable noun + …
Plural nouns: There are + not + plural noun + …

Negative short forms are: there isn’t/aren’t (the same short forms of to be).

A more common negative expression is there are not any (there are no)/there aren’t any (there aren’t).

Interrogative

Singular nouns: Is there + singular noun/uncountable noun + …?
Plural nouns: Are there + plural noun + …?

  • There is
    • There is a cat in the garden.
    • There is not a cat in the garden.
      There isn’t a cat in the garden.
    • Is there a cat in the garden?
  • There are
    • There are ten cats in the garden.
    • There are not ten cats in the garden.
      There aren’t ten cats in the garden.
    • Are there ten cats in the garden?

*A more common expression is “there is no”, e.g. There is no cat in the garden.
*A more common expression is “there are no”, e.g. There are no cats in the garden. or “there are not any”, e.g. There aren’t any cats in the garden.

 Цей вид структури “there” називається “фіктивний суб’єкт”, насправді, це свого роду підготовчий предмет, який передбачає наявність реального предмета десь в реченні.

There is/are вживається для підтвердження (коли використовується стверджувальна форма), заперечення (коли заперечна форма) або перевірки (коли запитальна форма).

  • There is for singular
  • There are for plural

For example:
— Affirmative:There is a plate on the table. (= just one plate)-There are plates on the table. (= more than one plate)” = We use the Affirmative form to confirm the presence of a plate on the table.
Negative:There isn’t a plate on the table. (= deny just one plate is on the table) – There aren’t plates on the table (= maybe one plate but not many plates) ” = We use the Negative form to deny the presence of a plates on the table.*
*The more common form is “there is no/there are no”, e.g. There is no plate on the table. – There are no plates on the table.
Interrogative:Is there a plate on the table? (= asking for one plate) – Are there plates on the table? (= asking for more than one plate)” = We use the Interrogative form to ask information about the presence of a plate on the table.

Let’s revise this content within the [Form] section. Take a look at the [Example] section that shows its use within a context.

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English Grammar A1 Level for Ukrainian speakers Copyright © 2018 by books4languages. All Rights Reserved.

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