Unit 9.2

Kazalni zaimki


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Introduction

Zaimki [pronouns] so besede, ki jih uporabljamo v izogib ponavljanju samostalnika.

Kazalni zaimski [demonstrative pronouns] so določniki, ki jih uporabljamo namesto samostalnikov, ko se nanašamo na stvari in določamo njihov položaj in oddaljenost od govorca.

Form

Kazalne zaimke uporabljamo v izogib ponavljanju samostalnikov. Pred zaimki ne uporabljamo členov in drugih določnikov.

Kazalni zaimki so:

Singular Plural
Near This These
Far That Those

Example

Blizu

  • This is very nice.
  • This is the restaurant I like.
  • These are very nice.
  • These are expensive clothes.

Daleč

  • That is very nice.
  • That smells amazing.
  • Those are very nice.
  • Those are cheap afternoon snacks.

Use

Kazalne zaimke uporabljamo namesto samostalnika, da bi se izognili ponavljanju.

  • Near: uporabimo this (ednina) ali these (množina) za stvari in ljudi, ki so blizu govorca (tukaj).
  • Far: uporabimo that (ednina) in those (množina) za stvari in ljudi, ki so daleč (tam).

Summary

Kazalne zaimke [demonstrative pronouns] uporabljamo namesto samostalnikov, da bi se izognili ponavljanju, ko se nanašamo na stvari in določamo njihov položaj glede na njihovo oddaljenost od govorca.

  • Blizu: za samostalnike v ednini this, za samostalnike v množini these.
  • Daleč: za samostalnike v ednini that, za samostalnike v množini those.

Na primer:
— “This is very nice.” = Neka stvar, ki je blizu govorca.
— “These are very nice.” = Neke stvari, ki so blizu govorca.
— “That is very nice.” = Neka stvar, ki je daleč od govorca.
— “Those are very nice.” = Neke stvari, ki so daleč od govorca.

Ne mešajmo kazalnih zaimkov in kazalnih pridevnikov, kateri stojijo pred samostalnikom. Čeprav imajo isto obliko, imajo zelo različne funkcije v povedi.

Na primer:
— “This is very nice.” = Uporabimo zaimek this, s katerim pokažemo oddaljenost nečesa in se izognemo ponovitvi samostalnika.
♦ “This shirt is very nice.” = Uporabimo pridevnik this, s katerim pokažemo oddaljenost majice in uvedemo samostalnik.

NOTE: Pred zaimki ne uporabljamo določnikov.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

Exercises

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