Unit 11.2

Velelni naklon


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Introduction

Velelni naklon [imperative mood] je struktura, ki jo uporabljamo za dajanje ukazov in povelij.

Form

Velelnik ponavadi uporablja osebek v drugi osebi (ednine/množine).  To strukturo ponavadi najdemo v dveh oblikah, trdilni in nikalni:

Affirmative

Njegova struktura v trdilni obliki je:
Verb (infinitive without to) + …

Infinitive Positive Imperative
To eat Eat!
To dance Dance!
To run Run!
To sleep Sleep!
To work Work!

Negative

Njegova struktura v nikalni obliki je:
Don’t + verb (infinitive without to) + …

Infinitive Negative Imperative
To eat Don’t eat!
To dance Don’t dance!
To run Don’t run!
To sleep Don’t sleep!
To work Don’t work!

Example

  1. Dajanje ukazov
    • Come back!
    • Don’t play on the road!
    • Don’t listen to him!
  2. Dajanje navodil
    • Open your book on page 40.
    • Place your bags under the seat.
    • Don’t take off your glasses during the process.
  3. Dajanje nasvetov
    • Talk to the doctor. He will understand.
    • Don’t buy this car. It’s too expensive.
    • Don’t speak to them. They are dangerous.
  4. Znaki/obvestila
    • Pull.
    • Insert 1 Euro.
    • Do not disturb.
  5. Povabila
    • See for yourself.
    • Have some cookies.
    • Don´t be afraid to call a nurse.

Use

Velenik uporabljamo v trdilni in nikalni obliki. Velelnik v trdilni obliki uporabljamo za motiviranje ali siljenje nekoga, da nekaj stori. Velelnik v nikalni obliki uporabljamo, da preprečimo nekomu, da nekaj stori.

Velelnike uporabljamo za:

  1. Dajanje ukazov (v večini primerov s klicajem na koncu povedi);
  2. Dajanje navodil;
  3. Dajanje nasvetov;
  4. Znake/obvestila;
  5. Povabila (uporabljamo le v trdilni obliki).

Summary

Veleni naklon [imperative mood] implicira uporabo druge osebe (v ednini in množini).

  • Trdilna oblika: ukazi, predlogi, nasveti ali navodila.
    Struktura je: Verb (infinitive without to) + …
  • Nikalna oblika: ukazi, predlogi, nasveti ali navodila, ki preprečujejo nekomu, da nekaj naredi.
    Struktura je: Don’t + verb (infinitive without to) + …

Na primer:
— Trdilna: “Buy some food for lunch!
— Nikalna: “Don’t buy food for lunch!

NOTE: Ponavadi se v velelnih stavkih izogibamo osebnemu zaimku.

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

Exercise

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