Unit 1.2

Present simple v trdilni obliki


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Introduction

Enostavni sedanjik [present simple] je čas, ki ga uporabljamo za opisovanje trajnih situacij ali dogodkov, ki se redno ponavljajo ali se vedno zgodijo.

Ko je v trdilni obliki, potrjuje nekaj glede osebka.

Form

Present simple ima v trdilni obliki strukturo:
Subject + verb + …

  • V tretji osebni ednine dodamo -s na koncu glagola. Izjeme:
    • Glagoli s priponami -ch, -s, -sh, -x, -z: dodamo -es (watchwatches; kisskisses; crushcrushes; taxtaxes; buzzbuzzes);
    • Glagolom, ki se končajo na soglasnik sledi -y: spremenimo -y v -i in dodamo -es (cry ⇒ cries);
    • Nepravilni glagoli kot do, go, be in have ne sledijo nobenemu pravilu: dodoes, go goes, beis, havehas.
Subject Verb
I work
You work
He works
She works
It works
We work
You work
They work

 

Example

  1. Načrtovana prihodnost
    • I start my new job on the 17th of June.
    • The exam period ends on the 24th December.
    • Their friend arrives in a few days.
  2.  Urniki
    • The train leaves at 7 o’clock.
    • The match starts at 9 o’clock tomorrow.
    • My exams start at 10 o’clock tomorrow.
  3. Navade/rutine
    • I usually wake up at 8 o’clock.
    • He goes to the gym twice a week.
    • We go to good restaurants for lunch.
  4. Dejstva
    • The sun rises in the east.
    • The water boils at 100°C.
    • Tigers exist.
  5. Trajne situacije
    • I live in Brussels.
    • She works in a supermarket.
    • They play football.
  6. Obljube…
    • I promise to buy you a new mobile phone.
    • He swears he’ll go to the doctor.
    • Promise me you’ll give me your phone number.
  7. Dajanje usmeritev in navodil
    • You go straight and you turn left.
    • You restart your mobile phone.
    • You go upstairs and through the second door on the left.
  8. Zaključena dejanja, ki potekajo, medtem ko govorimo
    • The brigades disappear into the crowd.
    • The police catch the thief.
    • Real Madrid recovers from two goals down.
  9. Neformalno pripovedovanje
    • The Beast transforms into a prince.
    • Snow White falls asleep.
    • Little Red Riding-Hood meets the wolf.

Use

Present simple v trdilni obliki uporabljamo za opisovanje/izražanje:

  1. Načrtovane prihodnosti (načrtovanih dogodkov s točno določenim datumom);
  2. Urnikov (načrtovanih dogodkov s točno določenim datumom);
  3. Navad/rutin (nečesa, kar se ponavlja v sedanjosti);
  4. Dejstev (stvari, ki na splošno veljajo);
  5. Trajnih situacij (ki se dogajajo že nekaj časa in se bodo dogajale tudi v prihodnosti);
  6. Obljub;
  7. Navodil (ukazov);
  8. Zaključenih dejanj, ki se dogajajo medtem ko govorimo (pripombe);
  9. Neformalnega pripovedovanja (ko pripovedujemo zgodbo).

Summary

Enostavni sedanjik [present simple] v trdilni obliki uporabljamo za potrditev situacij, ki se redno, pogosto ali vedno dogajajo.

Struktura je:
Subject + verb + … (-s v tretji osebi ednine)

Na primer:
— “I work on important projects.” =
— “She works on important projects.” =

Pri tretji osebi ednine obstajajo izjeme, ki so odvisne od glagolske končnice.

Na primer:
— Pripone -ch, -s, -sh, -x, -z: “Catch” ⇒ “Catches” = dodajamo -es.
Soglasnik + -y: “Try” ⇒ “Tries” = -y spremenimo v -i in dodamo -es.
— Nepravilni glagoli: do ⇒ does, go ⇒ goes, be ⇒ is, have has

Ponovi to vsebino v delu {Form} in si poglej del {Example}, ki prikazuje rabo v kontekstu.

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